Refrigeration: A Practical Treatise on the Scientific Principles, Mechanical Operation, and Management of Refrigerating Plants Based on the Various Modern Systems of Artificial Cooling

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American school of correspondence, 1909 - Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery - 109 pages
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Page 2 - The language is simple and clear; heavy technical terms and the formulae of the higher mathematics have been avoided, yet without sacrificing any of the requirements of practical instruction; the arrangement of matter is such as to carry the reader along by easy steps to complete mastery of each subject; frequent examples for practice are given, to. enable the reader to test his knowledge and make it a permanent possession; and the illustrations are selected with the greatest care to supplement and...
Page 52 - The threads should be carefully cut with a good sharp die, making sure that the top and bottom of the threads are sharp and true. With this precaution, and an equally good thread in the fitting, it is not difficult to form a good and lasting joint. Particular care should also be taken that the pipe screws into the fitting the proper distance, and forms a contact the entire length, rather than to screw up against a shoulder without a perfect fit in the thread. This...
Page 74 - It is of great importance to know at all times whether or not the gas taken into the compressors is fully discharged into the condenser, as the slightest loss at this point is certain to make itself felt in the operation of the plant. The compressor and valves seldom need be taken apart to determine their operation. The engineer should be able to discern when the compressors are working at their best, by placing the hand on the inlet and outlet pipes or on the lower part of the compressors so as...
Page 99 - They are cut 3-inch larger in diameter than the cylinders. The leathers must be kept soaked with castor oil and must be well soaked in that before using; and a tin box containing spare leathers and castor oil must be kept on hand. Once, or sometimes twice a day, it is necessary to clean the machine by heating it up and blowing out all the oil and ice deposits. This is done as follows: The 1-inch valve of the by-pass is opened. Then the two...
Page 59 - ... the transmission of heat through the surface. It is, therefore, necessary in examining into the strength of the brine, to consider it with reference to the evaporating pressure of the ammonia as well as its own temperature. In the last...
Page 45 - V. shaped notches or openings along the top of the straight or vertical side of the trough, and down and off the serrated bottom edge to the pipes. The object of the serrated edges, as will be apparent, is the more even distribution of the water, owing to the fact that while it would be practically impossible to obtain a uniform flow of water over a straight and even edge of a trough, particularly if the amount is limited, it is an easy matter to regulate the flow through the V-shaped openings. Fig....
Page 72 - ... system, with brine of proper strength or density, as already explained — it only remains to keep the system or plant in that condition. As all forms of mechanism are liable to disarrangement and deterioration from various causes, repairs and corrections from time to time must be made to keep them in good condition. Let us now consider the most important points requiring attention. It is absolutely necessary for the good working of any type of plant or apparatus that it be kept clean. As a steam...
Page 71 - ... attach a cylinder of ammonia to the charging valve to enable the refrigeration to be commenced. The main stop valves above the compressor which were closed in expelling the air should now be opened and by-pass and other valves to the atmosphere closed. Close the outlet valve from the ammonia receiver and start the machine slowly, at the same time opening the feed valve between the drum of ammonia and evaporator.
Page 11 - The first is operated in connection with the brine system. In this evaporator salt brine, or other solution, is reduced in temperature by the evaporation of the ammonia or other refrigerant, and the cooled brine circulated through the room or other points to be refrigerated. In the second, the direct-expansion system, the ammonia or refrigerant is taken directly to the point to be cooled, and there evaporated in Fig.
Page 52 - ... joints may be divided into those having a compressible gasket between the thread on the pipe and the fitting into which it screws, and the screwed joint formed by a threaded pipe screwed into a tapped flange or fitting. The latter may be divided into those having a soldered joint, or one in which the union is formed by the threads only, with some of the usual cements to assist in making a tight joint. The two most prominent types of gasket fittings are shown in Figs.

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