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The Role of Conventionality in Indirectness
CrossCultural and Situational Variation in Requesting Behavior
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analysis apology asked Australian behavior bitte Blum-Kulka carry CCSARP chapter choice clean coding communicative compared concern considered context conventional indirectness conventionally conversational cross-cultural cultures directness discourse discussion distribution dominance downgraders effect elicited English examined example expected explicit expression fact factors findings force French frequently function further German given groups hand hearer Hebrew House IFID illocutionary indicate intensification intention interaction internal interpretation issue Kasper kitchen language learners Lecturer less linguistic marked marker meaning modification move native speakers nonnative notes obligation observed oral patterns performance politeness possible potential pragmatic presented Press propositional question realization reference relationship relative request strategy responsibility ride role similar situations social social distance Spanish specific speech act standard strategies structure student subjects suggest supportive syntactic Table tion types University utterance variation vary volume written