## Underwater acoustic systems |

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### Contents

The Sonar Equations | 16 |

Characteristics and Analysis of Sonar Waveforms | 32 |

Ray Trace Modelling of Sonar Propagation | 52 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

acoustic impedance acoustic intensity ambient noise amplifier amplitude analyser angle of incidence applications array attenuation backscatter bandwidth bottom calculation cavitation cepstrum ceramic channel components computing correlation function decibels delay depth detonation direction echo sounder effect electronic elements engineering equalisation equation example exhibit filter finite power Fourier Transform horizontal hydrophone IEEE illustrated in figure increase layer loss marine measured method metre MRayl multipath normal modes parametric path phase piezo-electric plane polar response power spectrum pressure field pressure fluctuation problem projector propagation pulse range ratio Ray Tracing received signal referred reflection coefficient relatively resonance reverberation scattering sea-floor sea-surface sediment shown in figure sonar sound speed profile spatial spectral density surface synthetic aperture Synthetic Aperture Sonar target strength thermocline transducer transmission frequency transmit tuning typically underwater acoustics utilise variability velocity vertical voltage wave waveform wavefront wavelength