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above—average looks absolute value attractive workers Average Above average average for age average wage bad looks beauty measures beauty ratings Beauty Variables below—average looking better—looking Canadian Quality coefficients columns continuous and indicator correlation David Card differences dummy variables earnings equations Economic educational attainment empirical estimates evidence five—point scale gender George Borjas Hatfield and Sprecher health status hedonic Hispanics hourly earnings Impact of Looks included income indicator variables measuring interviewer labor market labor—force participation looks and earnings looks are important looks differential Markuscn Thomas Michigan State University NBER normal distribution Obese occupational crowding occupational—crowding model ordered probits penalties and premia penalty for bad percent were rated physical appearance possible premia and penalties premium productivity model rating of beauty responded that appearance significantly nonzero standard error standards of beauty Strikingly handsome suggest survey three samples unattractive unattractive workers unobserved wage for attractive weekly hours