Dust in the Galactic Environment, 2nd Edition

Front Cover
CRC Press, Oct 21, 2002 - Science - 390 pages
Dust is a ubiquitous feature of the cosmos, impinging directly or indirectly on most fields of modern astronomy and astrophysics. Dust in the Galactic Environment, Second Edition provides a thorough overview of the subject, covering general concepts, methods of investigation, important results and their significance, relevant literature, and some suggestions for promising avenues of future research.

Since the publication of the first edition of this popular graduate text, major advances have been made in our understanding of astrophysical dust, especially in the light of exciting new results from space- and ground-based telescopes, together with advances in laboratory astrophysics and theoretical modeling. This new, expanded edition highlights the latest results and provides a context for future research opportunities. The first chapter provides a historical perspective for current research and an overview of interstellar environments and the role of dust in astrophysical processes, followed by a discussion of the cosmic history of the chemical elements expected to be present in dust and an examination of the effect of gas-dust interactions on gas phase abundances. The next several chapters describe the observed properties of interstellar grains, such as their extinction, polarization, absorption, and emission characteristics. Then, the book explores the origin and evolution of dust, tracing its life cycle in a succession of environments from circumstellar shells to diffuse interstellar clouds, molecular clouds, protostars, and protoplanetary disks. The final chapter summarizes progress toward a unified model. Dust in other galaxies is discussed as an integral part of the text rather than as a distinct topic requiring separate chapters.

Containing extensive references and problems to aid understanding and illustrate basic principles, the book is ideally suited for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It will also be an invaluable reference for postgraduate students and researchers working in this important field.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

Dust in the Galaxy Our view from within
xvi
Discovery and assimilation
1
13 The distribution of dust and gas
7
132 The galactic disc
9
133 High galactic latitudes
11
134 Diffuse galactic background radiation
12
14 Interstellar environments and physical processes
14
143 Interstellar clouds
17
524 Hydrocarbons and organic residues
169
53 The dense ISM
173
532 The threshold effect
175
the 3 𝞵m profile
177
polar and apolar mantles
180
535 Other carbonbearing ices
181
536 Nitrogen and sulphurbearing ices
184
537 Refractory dust
186

144 H II regions
20
145 The interstellar environment of the Solar System
21
15 The significance of dust in modern astrophysics
23
153 Stars nebulae and galaxies
25
154 Back to basics
26
16 A brief history of models for interstellar dust
27
161 Dirty ices metals and Platt particles
28
162 Graphite and silicates
29
163 Unmantled refractory and coremantle models
32
164 Biota
34
Problems
35
Abundances and depletions
37
21 The origins of the condensible elements
38
212 Nucleogenesis
40
214 Enrichment of the interstellar medium
43
22 The Solar System abundances
44
222 Results
45
23 Abundance trends in the Galaxy
49
232 Spatial variation
50
233 Solar abundances in space and time
52
24 The observed depletions
53
242 Average depletions in diffuse clouds
55
243 Dependence on environment
58
244 Overview
59
25 Implications for grain models
60
Recommended reading
63
Extinction and scattering
65
31 Theoretical methods
66
312 Smallparticle approximations
68
313 Albedo scattering function and asymmetry parameter
69
314 Composite grains
70
32 Observational technique
71
33 The average extinction curve and albedo
74
332 Scattering characteristics
76
333 Longwavelength extinction and evaluation of Rv
79
334 Neutral extinction
81
335 Dust density and dusttogas ratio
82
34 Spatial variations
83
342 The redinfrared
87
343 Order from chaos?
90
351 Observed properties
91
352 Implications for the identity of the carrier
96
36 Structure in the visible
101
37 Modelling the interstellar extinction curve
105
Recommended reading
108
Polarization and grain alignment
111
41 Extinction by anisotropic particles
112
42 Polarimetry and the structure of the galactic magnetic field
114
422 Macroscopic structure
116
423 Polarization efficiency
119
424 Smallscale structure
121
425 Dense clouds and the skindepth effect
122
43 The spectral dependence of polarization
124
432 Powerlaw behaviour in the infrared
126
433 Polarization and extinction
127
434 Regional variations
131
435 Circular polarization
136
44 Polarization and grain models
137
45 Alignment mechanisms
140
451 Grain spin and rotational dissipation
141
the DG mechanism
144
453 Superparamagnetic alignment
146
454 Suprathermal spin
147
455 Radiative torques
148
456 Mechanical alignment
149
457 Alignment in dense clouds
150
Recommended reading
151
Infrared absorption features
153
51 Basics of infrared spectroscopy
154
512 Intrinsic strengths
158
513 Observational approach
159
52 The diffuse ISM
161
522 Silicates
164
523 Silicon carbide
168
538 Spectropolarimetry and alignment of coremantle grains
189
Recommended reading
192
Continuum and line emission
194
61 Theoretical considerations
195
612 FIR continuum emission from an interstellar cloud
197
6 13 Effect of grain shape
199
614 Effect of grain size
201
62 Galactic continuum emission
203
623 Dust and gas
206
624 The cold dust problem
209
63 Spectral emission features
211
632 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
213
64 Extended red emission
221
Recommended reading
223
Problems
224
Dust in stellar ejecta
225
71 The formation of dust in stellar outflows
226
712 The circumstellar environment
228
713 Orich stars
229
714 Carbon stars
231
715 Late stages of stellar evolution
233
72 Observational constraints on stardust
234
722 Infrared spectral features
237
723 Circumstellar extinction
244
724 Stardust in meteorites
246
73 Evolved stars as sources of interstellar grains
251
732 Grainsize distribution
254
733 Dusttogas ratio
255
734 Composition
256
Recommended reading
260
Evolution in the interstellar medium
262
81 Grain surface reactions and the origin of molecular hydrogen
263
82 Gasphase chemistry
267
83 Mechanisms for growth
270
831 Coagulation
271
832 Mantle growth
272
deposition and evolution
274
842 Depletion timescales and limits to growth
276
843 Thermal and radiative processing
278
85 Refractory dust
286
852 Size distribution
289
853 Metamorphosis
290
854 Dust in galactic nuclei
291
Recommended reading
292
Dust in the envelopes of young stars
294
91 The early phases of stellar evolution
295
912 Infrared emission from dusty envelopes
297
913 Polarization and scattering
301
914 Ice sublimation in hot cores
303
92 Protoplanetary discs
305
921 T Tauri discs
306
922 Vega discs
307
923 The solar nebula
309
93 Clues from the early Solar System
311
931 Comets
312
932 Interplanetary dust
317
933 Meteorites
319
94 Ingredients for life
321
942 The deuterium diagnostic
322
943 Amino acids and chirality
324
944 Did life start with RNA?
327
945 Delivery to Earth
328
Recommended reading
330
Toward a unified model for interstellar dust
331
101 Areas of consensus
332
1012 Silicates
334
1014 Ices
335
102 Open questions
336
A Glossary
339
A2 Physical chemical and astrophysical terms
340
A3 Acronyms
345
References
347
Index
377
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page v - Put in thy chants said he, No more the puzzling hour nor day, nor segments, parts, put in, Put first before the rest as light for all and entrance-song of all, That of eidolons. Ever the dim beginning, Ever the growth', the rounding of the circle, Ever the summit and the merge at last, (to surely start again,) Eidolons!
Page 371 - The Immortal Fire Within: The Life and Work of Edward Emerson Barnard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp.
Page ii - Dust in the Galactic Environment, 2nd Edition DCB Whittet An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology DJ Raine and EG Thomas The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System MM Woolfson The Physics of the Interstellar Medium JE Dyson and DA Williams Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy TJ Millar and DA Williams (eds) Observational Astrophysics RE White (ed) Stellar Astrophysics RJ Tayler (ed) Forthcoming titles...
Page 360 - Herbst, E. and Klemperer, W., 1973, Astrophys. J., 185, 505. Herbst, E. and Knudson, SK, 1981, Chem.
Page 361 - FJ 1968 Nebulae and Interstellar Matter ed BM Middlehurst and LH Aller (Chicago and London : University of Chicago Press) pp575-622 Lee AR 1971 Phys.
Page 367 - Suppl. 138 75 Pendleton YJ, Sandford SA, Allamandola LJ, Tielens AGGM and Sellgren K 1994 Astrophys. J.

Bibliographic information