Dust in the Galactic Environment, 2nd Edition

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CRC Press, Oct 21, 2002 - Science - 390 pages
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Dust is a ubiquitous feature of the cosmos, impinging directly or indirectly on most fields of modern astronomy and astrophysics. Dust in the Galactic Environment, Second Edition provides a thorough overview of the subject, covering general concepts, methods of investigation, important results and their significance, relevant literature, and some suggestions for promising avenues of future research.

Since the publication of the first edition of this popular graduate text, major advances have been made in our understanding of astrophysical dust, especially in the light of exciting new results from space- and ground-based telescopes, together with advances in laboratory astrophysics and theoretical modeling. This new, expanded edition highlights the latest results and provides a context for future research opportunities. The first chapter provides a historical perspective for current research and an overview of interstellar environments and the role of dust in astrophysical processes, followed by a discussion of the cosmic history of the chemical elements expected to be present in dust and an examination of the effect of gas-dust interactions on gas phase abundances. The next several chapters describe the observed properties of interstellar grains, such as their extinction, polarization, absorption, and emission characteristics. Then, the book explores the origin and evolution of dust, tracing its life cycle in a succession of environments from circumstellar shells to diffuse interstellar clouds, molecular clouds, protostars, and protoplanetary disks. The final chapter summarizes progress toward a unified model. Dust in other galaxies is discussed as an integral part of the text rather than as a distinct topic requiring separate chapters.

Containing extensive references and problems to aid understanding and illustrate basic principles, the book is ideally suited for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It will also be an invaluable reference for postgraduate students and researchers working in this important field.
 

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Contents

Dust in the Galaxy Our view from within
1
Discovery and assimilation
2
13 The distribution of dust and gas
8
132 The galactic disc
10
133 High galactic latitudes
12
134 Diffuse galactic background radiation
13
14 Interstellar environments and physical processes
15
143 Interstellar clouds
18
524 Hydrocarbons and organic residues
170
53 The dense ISM
174
532 The threshold effect
176
the 3 𝞵m profile
178
polar and apolar mantles
181
535 Other carbonbearing ices
182
536 Nitrogen and sulphurbearing ices
185
537 Refractory dust
187

144 H II regions
21
145 The interstellar environment of the Solar System
22
15 The significance of dust in modern astrophysics
24
153 Stars nebulae and galaxies
26
154 Back to basics
27
16 A brief history of models for interstellar dust
28
161 Dirty ices metals and Platt particles
29
162 Graphite and silicates
30
163 Unmantled refractory and coremantle models
33
164 Biota
35
Problems
36
Abundances and depletions
38
21 The origins of the condensible elements
39
212 Nucleogenesis
41
214 Enrichment of the interstellar medium
44
22 The Solar System abundances
45
222 Results
46
23 Abundance trends in the Galaxy
50
232 Spatial variation
51
233 Solar abundances in space and time
53
24 The observed depletions
54
242 Average depletions in diffuse clouds
56
243 Dependence on environment
59
244 Overview
60
25 Implications for grain models
61
Recommended reading
64
Extinction and scattering
66
31 Theoretical methods
67
312 Smallparticle approximations
69
313 Albedo scattering function and asymmetry parameter
70
314 Composite grains
71
32 Observational technique
72
33 The average extinction curve and albedo
75
332 Scattering characteristics
77
333 Longwavelength extinction and evaluation of Rv
80
334 Neutral extinction
82
335 Dust density and dusttogas ratio
83
34 Spatial variations
84
342 The redinfrared
88
343 Order from chaos?
91
351 Observed properties
92
352 Implications for the identity of the carrier
97
36 Structure in the visible
102
37 Modelling the interstellar extinction curve
106
Recommended reading
109
Polarization and grain alignment
112
41 Extinction by anisotropic particles
113
42 Polarimetry and the structure of the galactic magnetic field
115
422 Macroscopic structure
117
423 Polarization efficiency
120
424 Smallscale structure
122
425 Dense clouds and the skindepth effect
123
43 The spectral dependence of polarization
125
432 Powerlaw behaviour in the infrared
127
433 Polarization and extinction
128
434 Regional variations
132
435 Circular polarization
137
44 Polarization and grain models
138
45 Alignment mechanisms
141
451 Grain spin and rotational dissipation
142
the DG mechanism
145
453 Superparamagnetic alignment
147
454 Suprathermal spin
148
455 Radiative torques
149
456 Mechanical alignment
150
457 Alignment in dense clouds
151
Recommended reading
152
Infrared absorption features
154
51 Basics of infrared spectroscopy
155
512 Intrinsic strengths
159
513 Observational approach
160
52 The diffuse ISM
162
522 Silicates
165
523 Silicon carbide
169
538 Spectropolarimetry and alignment of coremantle grains
190
Recommended reading
193
Continuum and line emission
195
61 Theoretical considerations
196
612 FIR continuum emission from an interstellar cloud
198
6 13 Effect of grain shape
200
614 Effect of grain size
202
62 Galactic continuum emission
204
623 Dust and gas
207
624 The cold dust problem
210
63 Spectral emission features
212
632 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
214
64 Extended red emission
222
Recommended reading
224
Problems
225
Dust in stellar ejecta
226
71 The formation of dust in stellar outflows
227
712 The circumstellar environment
229
713 Orich stars
230
714 Carbon stars
232
715 Late stages of stellar evolution
234
72 Observational constraints on stardust
235
722 Infrared spectral features
238
723 Circumstellar extinction
245
724 Stardust in meteorites
247
73 Evolved stars as sources of interstellar grains
252
732 Grainsize distribution
255
733 Dusttogas ratio
256
734 Composition
257
Recommended reading
261
Evolution in the interstellar medium
263
81 Grain surface reactions and the origin of molecular hydrogen
264
82 Gasphase chemistry
268
83 Mechanisms for growth
271
831 Coagulation
272
832 Mantle growth
273
deposition and evolution
275
842 Depletion timescales and limits to growth
277
843 Thermal and radiative processing
279
85 Refractory dust
287
852 Size distribution
290
853 Metamorphosis
291
854 Dust in galactic nuclei
292
Recommended reading
293
Dust in the envelopes of young stars
295
91 The early phases of stellar evolution
296
912 Infrared emission from dusty envelopes
298
913 Polarization and scattering
302
914 Ice sublimation in hot cores
304
92 Protoplanetary discs
306
921 T Tauri discs
307
922 Vega discs
308
923 The solar nebula
310
93 Clues from the early Solar System
312
931 Comets
313
932 Interplanetary dust
318
933 Meteorites
320
94 Ingredients for life
322
942 The deuterium diagnostic
323
943 Amino acids and chirality
325
944 Did life start with RNA?
328
945 Delivery to Earth
329
Recommended reading
331
Toward a unified model for interstellar dust
332
101 Areas of consensus
333
1012 Silicates
335
1014 Ices
336
102 Open questions
337
A Glossary
340
A2 Physical chemical and astrophysical terms
341
A3 Acronyms
346
References
348
Index
378
Copyright

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Page 372 - The Immortal Fire Within: The Life and Work of Edward Emerson Barnard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp.
Page iii - Dust in the Galactic Environment, 2nd Edition DCB Whittet An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology DJ Raine and EG Thomas The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System MM Woolfson The Physics of the Interstellar Medium JE Dyson and DA Williams Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy TJ Millar and DA Williams (eds) Observational Astrophysics RE White (ed) Stellar Astrophysics RJ Tayler (ed) Forthcoming titles...
Page 361 - Herbst, E. and Klemperer, W., 1973, Astrophys. J., 185, 505. Herbst, E. and Knudson, SK, 1981, Chem.
Page 362 - FJ 1968 Nebulae and Interstellar Matter ed BM Middlehurst and LH Aller (Chicago and London : University of Chicago Press) pp575-622 Lee AR 1971 Phys.
Page 368 - Suppl. 138 75 Pendleton YJ, Sandford SA, Allamandola LJ, Tielens AGGM and Sellgren K 1994 Astrophys. J.

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