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Academy according activity aireipov Alexandria Anaxagoras Anaximander ancient philosophy appears Arist Aristotelian Aristotle ascribed Athens atoms Berlin century Christian Cicero Compare conceived conception concerning cosmic matter Cynic Cyrenaics Democritan Democritus determined dialogue Diog Diogenes divine doctrine Eleatic elements Empedocles entirely Epicurus especially essence ethical explained fundamental Gesch Geschichte Gorgias Greece Greek philosophy Greek science hand Hellenic Heracleitus history of philosophy Ibid ideal independent individual investigations Ionian irtpl knowledge Laert later Leipzig Leucippus logical metaphysical Milesian moral motion nature neo-Platonism nevertheless original Paris Parmenides particular partly perception perfect Philebus Philos Phys physical Plato Plotinus point of view polemic political preserved principle problems Protagoras pupil pure Pythagoras Pythagoreans qualities relations religion religious scientific sense Sext Skepticism Socrates Sophists soul spirit Stoicism Stoics teaching teleological tendency Thales theoretical theory of Ideas things thought tion Ueber universal virtue vols Wise writings Xenophanes Zeller Zeno
Page 98 - Hence the famous oppositions of this philosophical sect; namely (1) limited and unlimited; (2) even and odd; (3) one and many; (4) right and left; (5) male and female; (6) rest and motion; (7) straight and crooked; (8) light and darkness; (9) good and evil; (10) square and rectangle.
Page 272 - ... beings of superhuman intelligence, incorporate deities. They appeared to him as the purer forms, those more like the deity, and from them a purposive rational influence upon the lower life of the earth seemed to proceed, — a thought which became the root of medieval astrology." - Moreover, "his theory of the subordinate gods of the spheres of the planets . . .. provided for a later demonology.
Page 158 - ... all his predecessors and contemporaries in wealth and knowledge, and most of them in acuteness and consecutiveness of thought" ; 109 that his ethics may be ranked with the teaching of Socrates ; 110 and that the loss of his writings is the "most lamentable that has happened to the original documents of ancient philosophy.
Page 207 - Each degree* has its own theoretic and practical functions in such a way that the lower functions may exist without the higher, but the higher appear in connection with the lower." One advance which Aristotle made over Platonism was based on his insight into the insufficiency of the theory of ideas to explain empirical facts. The super- sensible world of ideas and the world of sense are identical; the universal does not have a higher actuality...
Page 381 - The fundamentally constructive thought in his system was its abstract expression for the universal problem of neoPlatonisrn : the problem to make comprehensible the development of the One into the Many and the return of the Many into the One. The manifold effect is similar to the unitary cause, and yet different from it ; and this contradiction is reconciled by the fact that the effect strives by means of that very similarity to return to the cause from its state of separation from the cause. Hence...
Page 159 - ... atoms differ among one another in shape and size and move freely about in space. They have an infinite number of forms and a great variety of sizes. Creation consists solely in the fortuitous concurrence of these atoms, and death is but their separation and dispersion after a particular concurrence. "Atoms differ only in form and size, and in their union and separation all events are to be explained.
Page 372 - By the same necessity with which the gleaming of light is lost in the darkness, souls were supposed to create matter out of themselves and enter into it as formative powers. The world of sense phenomena has an existence that is just as eternal as the soul.
Page 375 - ... illuminating Idea. He who has an immediate recognition of the pure Idea is travelling to a higher perfection. But true blessedness is attained only in an ecstasy, when man is able to transcend thought and attain complete contact and union with God, forgetting both himself and the objective world. "Plotinus regarded this highest holiness as a grace which comes only to few, and to these but seldom. He granted that the culture of positive religion is a help to the attainment of this ecstatic condition,...
Page 347 - God would exclude the possibility of an active relation of God to the world. To overcome this difficulty Philo holds that since God cannot enter into direct relations with the impure and evil matter which, in contrast to Him, is passive, potencies go out from Him. with which He forms and directs the world. These (Stoical) Potencies were identified on the one hand with the Platonic Ideas, and, on the other, with the angels of the Jewish religion. Their unity, however, is the Logos the second God,...