Dealing with Complexity: An Introduction to the Theory and Application of Systems Science

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 31, 1993 - Business & Economics - 280 pages
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Contents 11. 2. 2. Four Main Areas of Dispute 247 11. 2. 3. Summary . . . 248 11. 3. Making Sense of the Issues . . 248 11. 3. 1. Introduction . . . . 248 11. 3. 2. The Scientific Approach 248 11. 3. 3. Science and Matters of Society . 249 11. 3. 4. Summary . 251 11. 4. Tying It All Together . . . . 251 11. 4. 1. Introduction . . . . 251 11. 4. 2. A Unifying Framework 251 11. 4. 3. Critical Systems Thinking 253 11. 4. 4. Summary 254 11. 5. Conclusion 254 Questions . . . 255 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Chapter One SYSTEMS Origin and Evolution, Terms and Concepts 1. 1. INTRODUCTION We start this book with Theme A (see Figure P. I in the Preface), which aims to develop an essential and fundamental understanding of systems science. So, what is systems science? When asked to explain what systems science is all about, many systems scientists are confronted with a rather daunting task. The discipline tends to be presented and understood in a fragmented way and very few people hold an overview understanding of the subject matter, while also having sufficient in-depth competence in many and broad-ranging subject areas where the ideas are used. Indeed, it was precisely this difficulty that identified the need for a comprehensive well-documented account such as is presented here in Dealing with Complexity.
 

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Contents

I
1
II
2
III
6
IV
7
V
21
VII
23
VIII
24
IX
25
LXXII
128
LXXIII
130
LXXIV
131
LXXVI
132
LXXVII
133
LXXVIII
134
LXXIX
135
LXXX
139

X
28
XI
31
XII
32
XIV
34
XVI
36
XVII
37
XVIII
38
XIX
39
XX
40
XXIII
41
XXIV
42
XXV
44
XXVI
45
XXVII
46
XXX
47
XXXI
48
XXXIII
49
XXXIV
52
XXXV
53
XXXVI
58
XXXVII
59
XXXVIII
61
XXXIX
63
XLI
64
XLII
66
XLIII
69
XLIV
70
XLV
74
XLVII
77
XLVIII
78
XLIX
79
LI
80
LII
81
LIII
87
LIV
91
LV
92
LVI
95
LVII
96
LVIII
97
LIX
99
LX
100
LXI
102
LXII
105
LXIII
108
LXV
109
LXVI
115
LXVII
116
LXIX
119
LXX
125
LXXI
127
LXXXI
141
LXXXII
142
LXXXIII
148
LXXXIV
149
LXXXV
151
LXXXVI
152
LXXXVII
158
LXXXVIII
160
LXXXIX
161
XCII
175
XCIII
188
XCIV
189
XCV
191
XCVI
193
XCVII
194
C
196
CI
197
CIII
205
CIV
208
CV
210
CVI
211
CVII
215
CVIII
218
CIX
220
CX
223
CXII
224
CXIII
225
CXIV
226
CXV
232
CXVI
233
CXVIII
235
CXIX
236
CXXI
237
CXXII
239
CXXIII
240
CXXIV
242
CXXV
243
CXXVI
245
CXXVII
246
CXXVIII
247
CXXIX
248
CXXXI
249
CXXXII
251
CXXXV
253
CXXXVI
254
CXXXVIII
255
CXXXIX
257
CXL
267
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