Beyond War:The Human Potential for Peace
The classic opening scene of 2001, A Space Odyssey shows an ape-man wreaking havoc with humanity's first invention--a bone used as a weapon to kill a rival. It's an image that fits well with popular notions of our species as inherently violent, with the idea that humans are--and always have been--warlike by nature. But as Douglas P. Fry convincingly argues in Beyond War, the facts show that our ancient ancestors were not innately warlike--and neither are we. Fry points out that, for perhaps ninety-nine percent of our history, for well over a million years, humans lived in nomadic hunter-and-gatherer groups, egalitarian bands where generosity was highly valued and warfare was a rarity. Drawing on archaeology and fascinating fieldwork on hunter-gatherer bands from around the world, Fry debunks the idea that war is ancient and inevitable. For instance, among Aboriginal Australians--who numbered some 750,000 individuals before the arrival of Europeans, all living in hunter-gathering groups--warfare was an extreme anomaly. There was individual violence and aggression, of course, but the Aborigines had sophisticated methods of resolving disputes, controlling individual outbursts, and preventing loss of life. Fry shows that, far from being natural, warfare actually appeared quite recently along with changes in social organization and especially the rise of states. But Fry also points out that even today, when war seems ever present (at least on television), the vast majority of us live peaceful, nonviolent lives. We are not as warlike as it might seem, and if we can learn from our ancestors, we may be able to move beyond war to provide real justice and security for the people of the world. A profoundly heartening view of human nature, Beyond War offers a hopeful perspective on our species and a positive prognosis for a future without war.
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1 Charting a New Direction
2 Do Nonwarring Societies Actually Exist?
The Human Potential for Peace
Projecting Mayhem onto the Past
5 The Earliest Evidence of War
From Nomadic Bands to Modern States
The Quest for Fairness
Fact or Fantasy?
Sex Differences in Aggression
The Nomadic Forager Model
14 Setting the Record Straight
15 A Macroscopic Anthropological View
16 Enhancing Peace
Organizations to Contact
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Aboriginal Australia adaptation American ancestral Ancestral Pueblo animal Anthropology assumptions Australia Australian Aborigine australopithecine Balikci band societies behavior Berndt and Berndt Boehm Chapter chiefdoms chimpanzees complex hunter-gatherers conflict management Conﬂict Resolution coprolite cross-cultural Dart disputes Douglas Fry egalitarian Elman Service Eskimo ethnographic evidence evolutionary example feuding ﬁght ﬁghting ﬁndings ﬁrst gatherers George Murdock global Hoebel homicides Homo human evolution human nature Human Potential hunter hunter-gatherer hunter-gatherer bands hunter-gatherer societies individual intergroup Ju/'hoansi justice Keeley killers lethal Montagnais-Naskapi murder Napoleon Chagnon Netsilik nomadic band nomadic foragers nomadic hunter-gatherer nonviolent Origin Otterbein Paliyan pattern Peaceful Societies perspective Peter Gardner physical aggression Potential for Peace relatives revenge killings Reyna Richard Wrangham Robarchek Robert self-redress Semai sex differences simple hunter-gatherers simple nomadic Siriono social organization spears species Tiwi Tonkinson tribal tribes types typical unoleais violence warfare warrior woman women World Wrangham Yahgan Yanomamo York Zapotec