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approximately assumed austenite austenite grain avoid cracking butt weld carbon content carbon equivalent Chapter cold cracking composition considered continuous cooling transformation critical cooling rate CTS test depends deposited determined Dominion Bridge Company effect of preheat electrodes energy input equation external restraint factors Figure fillet welds GBOP test Graville hardening curve hardness criterion HAZ hardness heat affected zone heat flow heat input heat source hydrogen content hydrogen embrittlement hydrogen level increases initial plate temperature intensity of restraint joint simulation test long welds low temperatures lower critical stress martensite maximum hardness McParlan metal hydrogen microstructure multipass weld occur plotted preheat level reaction stress residual stress room temperature S1ngle Satoh second stage contraction shown in Fig specimen submerged arc welding Suppl surface transfer Tekken th1cknesses thermal cycle thick plate tion total contraction transformation ture Typical weld metal cracking weld test Welding Journal welding procedure yield stress