Controversies in Minority Voting: The Voting Rights Act in Perspective
Bernard Grofman, Chandler Davidson
Brookings Institution Press - Law - 376 pages
Widely regarded as one of the most successful pieces of modern legislation, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 has transformed the nature of minority participation and representation in the United States. But with success came controversy as some scholars claim the Act has outlived its usefulness or been subverted in its aim. This volume brings together leading scholars to offer a twenty-five year perspective on the consequences of this landmark act. The Fifteenth Amendment, ratified in 1870, stated that the right of U.S. citizens to vote " shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or condition of previous servitude." The South, however, virtually ignored this right, disfranchising blacks through violence, intimidation, literacy tests, and poll taxes. The primary purpose of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was to break down these barriers to minority voting. Beginning with chapters covering the key provisions of the Act, the book discusses the way the Act has transformed American politics and looks at the role played by major civil rights groups in lobbying for extensions and amendments to it and in insuring that its provisions would be enforced.
Section 5 Enforcement and the Department of Justice
The 1982 Amendments of Section 2 and Minority Representation
The 1982 Amendments and the Voting Rights Paradox
SOCIAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVES ON THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT
Party Politics in the Wake of the Voting Rights Act
The Voting Rights Act and the Two Reconstructions
Voting Rights and the American Regulatory State
Where Do We Go From Here?
Some Consequences of the Voting Rights Act
CaseSpecific Implementation of the Voting Rights Act
What is the Best Route to a ColorBlind Society?
THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT
1982 amendments affirmative action American at-large elections Attorney ballot Bernard Grofman black candidates black voters blacks and Hispanics bloc voting Bolden challenge changes citizens City civil rights coalition Congress congressional constitutional County covered jurisdictions decision declaratory judgment denied discrimination discriminatory disfranchisement district court effect electoral enforcement ethnic expert witnesses factors federal Fifteenth Amendment Fourteenth gerrymandering Gingles Grofman Hispanic interest issues Justice Department Lani Guinier Latino lawyers legislative legislature literacy tests majoritarian majority minority candidates minority group minority officeholders minority voting Mississippi multimember multimember districts NAACP percent plaintiffs political subdivision population preclearance proportional representation protected race racially polarized voting Reconstruction redistricting registration remedy representatives Republican results test right to vote seats Senate single-member districts social South South Carolina southern standard Supreme Court Thernstrom 1987 Thornburg tion United violation vote dilution Voting Rights Act voting rights bar voting rights litigation
Page 18 - test or device" shall mean any requirement that a person as a prerequisite for voting or registration for voting (1) demonstrate the ability to read, write, understand, or interpret any matter, (2) demonstrate any educational achievement or his knowledge of any particular subject, (3) possess good moral character, or (4) prove his qualifications by the voucher of registered voters or members of any other class.