The Development of Biological Systematics: Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, Nature, and the Natural System
A reevaluation of the history of biological systematics that discusses the formative years of the so-called natural system of classification in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Shows how classifications came to be treated as conventions; systematic practice was not linked to clearly articulated theory; there was general confusion over the "shape" of nature; botany, elements of natural history, and systematics were conflated; and systematics took a position near the bottom of the hierarchy of sciences.
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Lamarck on Continuity and Classifications
The Natural Method of AntoineLaurent de Jussieu
Breaking with Continuity?
Types Groups and Relationships
Continuity and Classification
On Understanding Nature
Natural History and the Status of Systematics
Stability of Classifications and Its Causes
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affinities allowed analogy anatomy animals appeared approach arrangement Asa Gray become Bentham botanists botany called calyx Candolle chapter characters classes classification clear close common comparative complete connected considered continuity corolla Cuvier described detail diagrams discussion distinct distinguished divisions early essential established evident example existence families flower fruit function genera genus groups Hooker ideas important included insertion interest Jussieu kind known Lamarck largely later laws leaves less limits linked Linnaeus means mentioned method Mirbel names natural natural history natural method natural order natural system naturalists nineteenth century noted observed organs particular perhaps petals placed plantarum plants position practice principles problem rank recognized refer relationships remained represented seed seems separate similar simple single sometimes species stamens structure studies suggested systematics systematists taxa theory thought tion tree understanding whole