A Treatise on the Sun's Radiation and Other Solar Phenomena: In Continuation of the Meteorological Treatise on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiation, 1915

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John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 1918 - Solar radiation - 385 pages
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Page 56 - Al . . . .Sb ....A ....As ....Ba . ...Bi . ...B . ...Br . . . .Cd . . . .Cs . . . .Ca ....C . . . .Ce . . . .Cl . ...Cr ....Co . ...Cb . . . .Cu ...Dy...
Page 56 - Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cb Cu Dy Er Eu F Gd Ga Ge Au Hf He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Hg...
Page 79 - For, even to a radial depth of only 500 miles, the direct line of sight is almost 20,000 miles. These considerations seem to point to a reasonable explanation of the sharp boundary of the sun. For at the edge of the disk, owing to the oblique line of sight, gaseous scattering will probably extinguish almost all yellow light starting from more than 500 miles below the chromosphere, while an even less thickness suffices for blue or violet light.
Page 122 - The energy per unit volume, in vacua, of the radiation in equilibrium in an enclosure at the absolute temperature, T, is equal to a universal constant, A, multiplied by the fourth power of the...
Page 245 - BIGELOW'S treatise is a work to -I approach with circumspection. On p. 245 we read : " The formulas of chap. i. should be kept continually in mind, especially in respect of the fact that no term can change without drawing with it the entire long train of physical terms that are united with it.
Page 79 - ... gaseous or vaporous. Except in sun-spots the photosphere is too hot to contain solids or liquids, b) The density of the gases rapidly diminishes, and their temperature rapidly falls from within outward across the apparent boundary of the sun. It seems probable that gaseous scattering alone prevents us from seeing toward the center of the sun, when looking directly at the middle of the solar disk, to more than 5,000 miles below the reversing layer.
Page 82 - ... metallic vapors under the operation of the prevailing thermodynamic conditions. The computations show in fact that the pressures of Hg, Cd, and Zn fall to zero at a comparatively small distance above the photosphere. The element Ca just floats comfortably upon the layers of the still heavier gases, and it is easily observed in the spectroheliograph as a surface phenomenon, having many configurations as in the faculae and flocculi. The lighter gases, especially He and H, rise to great heights,...
Page 211 - ... 1. True solar intensity of radiation 5.85 calories 2. Effective solar intensity at the distance of the earth 3.98 " 3. Effective intensity by the bolometer (indicated) 3.98
Page 2 - ... region. The depth of the isothermal region is great for the light gases and small for the heavy ones.' The temperature is estimated at 7686? 7 absolute, being nearly the same for all the gases. The level P = 6 is also found to be the same for all. Another interesting conclusion is that the sun's disk is not an optical effect but the vanishing level of the heavy metallic vapors under the operation of the prevailing thermodynamic conditions. The computations show in fact that the pressures of Hg,...
Page 376 - Abbot concludes a rise of intensity of solar radiation from i'5o calories per square centimetre at sea-level to 1*94 at the confines of the earth's atmosphere, Prof. Bigelow, using the same observations, says that the latter figure should be raised to 3*98 calories. On p. 376 he remarks: "There is probably no apparatus more difficult to interpret correctly than is the pyrheliometer, because it demands a full knowledge of radiation in gases, in glass, in mercury, in metals, during variable transformations,...

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