## Logica Universalis: Towards a General Theory of LogicUniversal Logic is not a new logic, but a general theory of logics, considered as mathematical structures. The name was introduced about ten years ago, but the subject is as old as the beginning of modern logic. It was revived after the flowering of thousands of new logics during the last thirty years: there was a need for a systematic theory of logics to put some order in this chaotic multiplicity. |

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### Contents

A Survey of General Abstract Logic | 3 |

Abstract Model Theory as a Framework for Universal Logic | 19 |

ModelTheoretical Abstract Logics | 35 |

Self extensional Logics with Implication | 65 |

Logic without SelfDeductibility | 89 |

Identity and Nature of Logical Structures | 97 |

Equipollent Logical Systems | 99 |

What is a Logic? | 113 |

What is a Logic and What is a Proof? | 135 |

Tools and Concepts for Universal Logic | 147 |

Nondeterministic Matrices and Modular Semantics of Rules | 149 |

The Humbug of Many Logical Values | 169 |

Logical Friendliness and Sympathy | 191 |

Logical Discrimination | 207 |