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acid andesite appear areas atmosphere augite basalt basic lavas carbonic cause coast lines collapse column cone connected constantly continental continents cooling coral reefs crater Dana Darwin density diorite direction dolerite dykes earth's crust earthquake ecliptic effect eruption evidence fact feet feldspar figure fissures flow fusion gases geological geologists globe grand granite Halemaumau Hawaii Hawaiian group heat height hemisphere hornblende hypothesis igneous interior intersection Journal of Science Kilauea lake lava stream less liquid magma mass Mauna Kea Mauna Loa minerals Mokuaweoweo molten lava molten matter molten substratum mountain nearly nucleus Oahu observed ocean beds olivine orthoclase outflow Pacific pahoehoe plane polar circle portion pressure probably produced remark result rhyolite right angles rise seems seen side silicated solid spheroid steam strata stratum subsidence substratum summit crater tetrahedral tion trachyte twenty miles upheaval vapors volcanic action volcanic islands whilst zone of fracture
Page 295 - First the earth swayed to and fro north and south, then east and west, round and round, then up and down and in every imaginable direction for several minutes, everything crashing around us ; the trees thrashing about as if torn by a mighty rushing wind. It was impossible to stand ; we had to sit on the ground, bracing with hands and feet to keep from rolling over.
Page 83 - Riding hour after hour among these arid wastes, I became convinced that all volcanic phenomena are not to be explained by the ordinary conception of volcanoes, but that there is another and grander type of volcanic action, where, instead of issuing from a local vent, v.
Page 300 - ... its current large rocks that made the lava foam as it dashed down the precipice and through the valley into the sea, surging and roaring throughout its length like a cataract, with a power and fury perfectly indescribable. It was nothing else than a river of fire from 200 to 800 feet wide and twenty deep, with a .speed varying from ten to twenty-five miles an hour!
Page 300 - Mr. Whitney, of Honolulu, who was near the spot, says:— "From these great fountains to the sea flowed a rapid stream of red lava, rolling, rushing, and tumbling, like a swollen river, bearing along in its current large rocks that made the lava foam as it dashed down the precipice and through the valley into the sea, surging and roaring throughout its length like a cataract, with a power and fury perfectly indescribable. It was nothing else than a RIVER OF FIRE from 200 to 800 feet wide and twenty...
Page 66 - XXXV. VOLCANOES : What they Are and what they Teach. By JOHN W. JUDD, FRS, Professor of Geology in the Royal School of Mines. With 96 Illustrations.
Page 308 - And now that we were in full view of the grand display, our ears were filled with the mighty sound, as of a heavy surf booming in upon a level shore, while ever and anon a mingled crash and break of sound would call to mind the heavy rush of ponderous waves against the rocky cliffs that girt Hawaii.
Page 299 - ... lava, varying from five to fifty feet in depth. Fortunately all the inmates escaped safely to Waiohinu, but how narrow the escape was, and how rapid the stream flowed, may be inferred from the fact that the path by which they escaped was covered with lava ten minutes after they passed over it. "On ascending the ridge we found the eruption in full blast. Four enormous fountains...
Page 291 - Kilauea some three months ago, returned without effecting an entrance into the crater. During the last week in May and the first in June, visitors and passing travelers reported a fiery girdle around the whole circumference of Kilauea, along the base of her lofty walls — and, so intense was the heat, so suffocating the gases, so fearful the hissings, so awful the surgings, and so startling the detonations, that horses wheeled and plunged with panic, and men retired from the old Kau and Hilo road...
Page 22 - ... this history was the outpouring of great floods of trachyte, basalt, and other lavas from many points and fissures over a vast space of the Rocky Mountains and the tracts lying to the west. In the Snake River region alone the basalts have a depth of 700 to 1000 feet, over an area 300 miles in breadth. These examples show that the elevation of mountains, like that of continents, has been occasional, and, so to speak, paroxysmal.
Page 305 - It is greatest in the northern and rather gradual and gentle in its southern portion. Entering upon the depressed floor from the southern lake, it was some time before we became fully aware of its existence. It was only on our return from the northwest corner, where it is deepest, that there presented itself, through the mist in which we were enveloped, a high wall of three hundred feet of grotesque and fantastic outlines.