Structure and theory

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J. Wiley & sons, 1891 - Steam-engines
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Contents

James Watt
18
The Newcomen Model
19
Watts Singleacting Engine
22
Watts Doubleacting Engine
23
iS Later Pumping Engines
25
Early Compound Engines
27
The Stationary Engine
33
The Locomotive Engine Steam Fireengines
34
Early Marine Engines
55
Recent Use of Multiplecylinder Engines
68
MULTIPLECYLINDER OR COMPOUND ENGINES REDUCING WASTES JACKETS SUPERHEATING
71
Process of Development of the Steamengine
73
The Philosophical Study of this Development
77
ART J AGE 27 Structure and Uses of the Steamengine
82
Steamengines classed
83
The Designers Aim Principles of Design S5 31 General Principles of Construction
86
Exigencies of Operation
87
ART PAGE 100 Regnaults Work Stored Energy in Steam Steam Power 383
101
Highspeed and Lowspeed Engines Simple and Compound Forms
116
General Theory of Multiplecylinder Engines
138
The Wastes of the Compound Engine
139
Singleacting and Highspeed Engines
150
Pumpingengines
163
Portable Engines Agricultural Engines
179
Road Locomotives and Rollers
187
The Locomotiveengines
193
Marine Engines
217
Adaptation of Structure to increasing Steampressure
229
Peculiar Types of Steamengine Experimental Engines
231
CHAPTER III
243
Character Source and Transformations of Energy
245
Physical Principles Thermodynamics
246
Mechanical Principles
247
Energetics and Thermodynamics
249
The Ideal and the Real Engine
250
Nature of the Scientific Problem
251
Origin and Form of the Mechanical Theory of Heat
253
The Science of Thermodynamics
256
General Theory of Steamengines
257
Carnots Work De Pambour Tate 25S 59 Clausiuss Labors
261
fo Rankine and his Work Thomson
263
The Thermodynamics of Today
267
ART PAGB 63 Watts and Smeatons Discoveries
268
The Best Ratio of Expansion
271
Hirns Investigations DwelshauversDery
274
Isherwoods Experiments Cotterill
275
Status of the Theory of 1850
277
The Three Periods of this Philosophy
279
Work still to be done Outlook
281
Plan of Succeeding Portion of this Work
282
CHAPTER IV
296
Definition of Thermodynamics
297
Energetics defined and discussed The Fundamental Law
298
Matter Force Work and Energy
299
Law of Energetics
304
Newtons Laws and Energetics
305
Algebraic Expressions in Energetics
307
Thermodynamics a Restricted Case of Energetics Thermodynamics defined
309
Basis and Laws of Thermodynamics
310
Expressions of the First Law The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
312
The First Law and the Heatengines
315
The Steamengine and the Second Law
319
The Relations of the two Laws
321
Thermodynamics and the Constitution of Matter
322
External and Internal Work
327
Heat and Temperature Absolute Scale
328
Quantities of Heat Calorimetry
333
Specific Latent and Total Heats Computation of Latent and Total Heat of Steam
336
The Critical Physical Conditions and Temperature
350
The Perfect Gas Definition Equation
354
Thermodynamics of the Perfect Gas
355
Thermodynamics of Work and Energy
365
Thermodynamics of Imperfect Gases and of Vapors
373
Thermodynamics of Steam Factors of Evaporation Tables
376
tion
389
The Physical or Thermal Wastes
429
in The Mechanical or Dynamic Wastes Backpressure and Clearance
430
The Ideal Cases Heat transformed Adiabatic Condensation
431
Special Cases Use of Saturated Steam Jacketed Engines
444
Efficiency of Cyclical Operations
447
Conditions of Maximum Efficiency
449
Theory of Efficiency of Ideal Engines
450
Computations of Ideal Engine Efficiencies Examples of Application
454
Limit of Actual Engine Efficiency
466
Real Engines and their Cycles
467
THE EFFICIENCIES OF THE STEAMENGINE
468
Method of Operation Limits of Temperature
470
Methods of Waste in Actual Engines
471
Magnitudes and Distribution of Losses Backpressure
476
The Unavoidable Thermodynamic Waste in Actual Cases
482
Conditions of Maximum Efficiency of Fluids 4S3 126 Heatwastes by Conduction and Radiation
483
Methods of Reduction of such Losses 437
488
Laws governing Loss by Internal Condensation
499
Theory of Internal Condensation and Waste
517
Restriction of Cylindercondensation Superheating Steamjackets High Speed
535
Friction of Engine and Efficiency of the Machine
540
Investigation of Internal Engine Friction
558
Variation and Distribution of Internal Friction
565
Conditions of Real Maximum Efficiency of Machine
570
Conditions of Maximum Total Efficiency of the Steam
571
The Amelioration of Wastes Jacketing Superheating
590
The Problems of Compounding
593
The First Step in Compounding
596
Extent of Economical Expansion
597
Influence of Superheating Jacketing Enginespeed 59S 146 The Number of Cylinders in Series
600
Influence of Size of Engine
604
Examples of Computations of Efficiency
611
General Results of Experiment
614
Balance of Forces Efficiency of Mechanism and Distribution of Pressures
620
Steamjackets on Simple and Multiplecylinder Engines
622
Action of the Jacket in Detail
627
Jacketwastes vs Cylinderwastes
632
55 Computation of Efficiency and Jacketwaste
636
Limitations of Jacketaction its Maximum Efficiency 64S 157 Jackets on Multiplecylinder Engines
654
Jacketing and Superheating 651
656
Temperatures and Pressures in Jackets
658
Quality of Steam Condition of Surfaces
659
Jacketing the Heads and Piston
661
Defective Jacketing Air in Jackets
663
i6 Experience with Jackets Experimental Results
664
Superheated Steam as a Working Fluid
671
Limit in Superheating Outlook
675
Experience and Testimony Conclusions relative to Superheating 6S0 171 Compression and Clearances Backpressure
683
The Binaryvapor System
697
DESIGN CONSTRUCTION OPERATION
705
Thermodynamic Efficiency
709
Actual Efficiency of Working Substance
712
Estimates of Heat Steam Fuel
713
Efficiency of the Machine and the Engine
714
Actual Thermal Lines and Curves of Efficiency
718
Ratios of Expansion at Maximum Efficiencies
725
Size of Engines Efficiency of Capital
741
Efficiencies of the Ideal Engine
746
Rankines Diagram of Ideal Efficiency
749
1S5 Theory of Efficiencies for Real Engines
752
Curves of Efficiency for Real Engines
756
Thurstons Curves of Real Efficiency
757
Solution of Practical Problems
759
Construction of Efficiency Diagram from Actual Cases
762
Method of Use of Diagrams of Efficiency
765
Estimation of Costs
767
Statement of Results 78
768
Relation of Costs and Profits
772
Profits at a fixed Expansion
774
Cost of Engine as affecting the Best Ratio of Expansion
775
Back Pressure as modifying Economy
776
Deductions from the Investigation of Costs 77
783
Efficiency Problems solved by Inspection
784
Conclusions relative to Maximum Efficiencies
785
Absolute Limits to Expansion
786

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 544 - The greatest fluidity consistent with the preceding requirements, ie, the least fluid-friction allowable. (3) The lowest possible coefficient of friction under the conditions of actual use, ie, the sum of the two components, solid and fluid friction, should be a minimum. (4) A maximum capacity for receiving, transmitting, storing, and carrying away heat.
Page 307 - Work done on any system of bodies (in Newton's statement, the parts of any machine) has its equivalent in work done against friction, molecular forces, or gravity, if there be no acceleration ; but if there be acceleration, part of the work is expended in overcoming the resistance- to acceleration, and the additional kinetic energy developed is equivalent to the work so spent.
Page 247 - Change of motion is proportional to the force impressed, and in the direction of the right line in which that force acts. 3. Action is always opposed by reaction ; action and reaction are equal, and in directly contrary directions. We may add to these principles a definition of a force, which is equally and absolutely complete : Force is that which produces, or tends to produce, motion, or change of motion, in bodies.
Page 80 - We may summarize the result of our examination of the growth of the steam-engine thus : First. The process of improvement has been one, primarily, of " differentiation ; " * the number of parts has been continually increased ; while the work of each part has been simplified, a separate organ being appropriated to each process in the cycle of operations.
Page 36 - ... the art of engineering than any man of his time, and he entertained and urged more advanced' opinions and more statesmanlike views, in relation to the economical importance of the improvement of the steam engine, both on land and water, than seem to have been attributable to any other leading engineer of that time.
Page 21 - The quantity of water evaporated in a certain boiler by a pound of coal. "4. The elasticities of steam at various temperatures greater than that of boiling water, and an approximation to the law which it follows at other temperatures. "5. How much water in the form of steam was required every stroke by a small Newcomen engine, with a wooden cylinder 6 inches in diameter and 12 inches stroke.
Page 489 - ... jacket," or annular casing enveloping the cylinder, filled with hot steam from the boiler, which was one of the inventions of Watt, is to prevent that liquefaction of the steam in the cylinder. That liquefaction does not, when it first takes place, directly constitute a waste of heat or of energy; for it is accompanied by a corresponding performance of work. It does, however, afterwards, by an indirect process, diminish the efficiency of the engine; for the water which becomes liquid in the cylinder,...
Page 623 - in which I found the steam-engine, it was no great effort of mind to observe that the quantity of fuel necessary to make it work would for ever prevent its extensive utility. The next step in my progress was equally easy — to inquire what was the cause of the great consumption of fuel : this, too, was readily suggested, viz., the waste of fuel which was necessary to bring the whole cylinder, piston, and adjacent parts from the coldness of water to the heat of steam, no fewer than from fifteen...
Page 27 - The regulation is effected by a "cataract," a kind of hydraulic governor, consisting of a plunger-pump with a reservoir attached. The plunger is raised by the engine, and then automatically detached. It falls with greater or less rapidity, its velocity being determined by the size of the eduction orifice, which is adjustable by hand. When the plunger reaches the bottom of the pump-barrel, it disengages a catch, a weight is allowed to act upon the steam-valve, opening it, and the engine is caused...
Page 254 - A numerical solution of the relation between heat and work was what Mayer aimed at, and towards the end of his first paper he makes the attempt. It was known that a definite amount of air, in rising one degree in temperature, can take up two different amounts of heat. If its volume be kept constant, it takes up one amount: if its pressure be kept constant it takes up a different amount. These two amounts are called the specific heat under constant volume and under constant pressure. The ratio of...

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