action adiabatic adopted amount application atmospheres boiler built cent coal compound engine compression constant construction Corliss Corliss engine crank cylinder-condensation diameter economical effect efficiency energy exhaust experiments feet fluid foot-pounds friction fuel gine give governor heat-energy heat-engines high-pressure cylinder horse-power hour ideal increased internal wastes jacket James Watt latent heat latter less locomotive loss lubrication machine marine engines Marquis of Worcester maximum mean effective pressure measured mechanical method motion multiple-cylinder engine nearly Newcomen engine non-condensing obtained operation piston point of cut-off practice pressure produced proportion pump pumping-engine quantity of heat Rankine ratio of expansion real engine reduced revolutions per minute Savery seen shaft simple engine specific heat speed square inch steam-cylinder steam-engine steam-jacket steam-pressure stroke superheating surface surface-condenser temperature theory thermodynamic tion tons transformation triple-expansion triple-expansion engine type of engine usually valve valve-gear vapor variation vessel volume Watt weight
Page 544 - The greatest fluidity consistent with the preceding requirements, ie, the least fluid-friction allowable. (3) The lowest possible coefficient of friction under the conditions of actual use, ie, the sum of the two components, solid and fluid friction, should be a minimum. (4) A maximum capacity for receiving, transmitting, storing, and carrying away heat.
Page 307 - Work done on any system of bodies (in Newton's statement, the parts of any machine) has its equivalent in work done against friction, molecular forces, or gravity, if there be no acceleration ; but if there be acceleration, part of the work is expended in overcoming the resistance- to acceleration, and the additional kinetic energy developed is equivalent to the work so spent.
Page 247 - Change of motion is proportional to the force impressed, and in the direction of the right line in which that force acts. 3. Action is always opposed by reaction ; action and reaction are equal, and in directly contrary directions. We may add to these principles a definition of a force, which is equally and absolutely complete : Force is that which produces, or tends to produce, motion, or change of motion, in bodies.
Page 80 - We may summarize the result of our examination of the growth of the steam-engine thus : First. The process of improvement has been one, primarily, of " differentiation ; " * the number of parts has been continually increased ; while the work of each part has been simplified, a separate organ being appropriated to each process in the cycle of operations.
Page 36 - ... the art of engineering than any man of his time, and he entertained and urged more advanced' opinions and more statesmanlike views, in relation to the economical importance of the improvement of the steam engine, both on land and water, than seem to have been attributable to any other leading engineer of that time.
Page 21 - The quantity of water evaporated in a certain boiler by a pound of coal. "4. The elasticities of steam at various temperatures greater than that of boiling water, and an approximation to the law which it follows at other temperatures. "5. How much water in the form of steam was required every stroke by a small Newcomen engine, with a wooden cylinder 6 inches in diameter and 12 inches stroke.
Page 489 - ... jacket," or annular casing enveloping the cylinder, filled with hot steam from the boiler, which was one of the inventions of Watt, is to prevent that liquefaction of the steam in the cylinder. That liquefaction does not, when it first takes place, directly constitute a waste of heat or of energy; for it is accompanied by a corresponding performance of work. It does, however, afterwards, by an indirect process, diminish the efficiency of the engine; for the water which becomes liquid in the cylinder,...
Page 623 - in which I found the steam-engine, it was no great effort of mind to observe that the quantity of fuel necessary to make it work would for ever prevent its extensive utility. The next step in my progress was equally easy — to inquire what was the cause of the great consumption of fuel : this, too, was readily suggested, viz., the waste of fuel which was necessary to bring the whole cylinder, piston, and adjacent parts from the coldness of water to the heat of steam, no fewer than from fifteen...
Page 27 - The regulation is effected by a "cataract," a kind of hydraulic governor, consisting of a plunger-pump with a reservoir attached. The plunger is raised by the engine, and then automatically detached. It falls with greater or less rapidity, its velocity being determined by the size of the eduction orifice, which is adjustable by hand. When the plunger reaches the bottom of the pump-barrel, it disengages a catch, a weight is allowed to act upon the steam-valve, opening it, and the engine is caused...
Page 254 - A numerical solution of the relation between heat and work was what Mayer aimed at, and towards the end of his first paper he makes the attempt. It was known that a definite amount of air, in rising one degree in temperature, can take up two different amounts of heat. If its volume be kept constant, it takes up one amount: if its pressure be kept constant it takes up a different amount. These two amounts are called the specific heat under constant volume and under constant pressure. The ratio of...