Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage
Cambridge University Press, Feb 27, 1987 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 345 pages
This study is about the principles for constructing polite speeches. The core of it first appeared in Questions and Politeness, edited by Esther N. Goody (now out of print). It is here reissued with a fresh introduction that surveys the considerable literature in linguistics, psychology and the social sciences that the original extended essay stimulated, and suggests distinct directions for research. The authors describe and account for some remarkable parallelisms in the linguistic construction of utterances with which people express themselves in different languages and cultures. A motive for these parallels is isolated - politeness, broadly defined to include both polite friendliness and polite formality - and a universal model is constructed outlining the abstract principles underlying polite usages. This is based on the detailed study of three unrelated languages and cultures: the Tamil of South India, the Tzeltal spoken by Mayan Indians in Chiapas, Mexico, and the English of the USA and England, supplemented by examples from other cultures. Underneath the apparent diversity of polite behaviour in different societies lie some general pan-human principles of social interaction, and the model of politeness provides a tool for analysing the quality of social relations in any society. This volume will be of special interest to students in linguistic pragmatics, sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, anthropology, and the sociology and social psychology of interaction.
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address forms addressee honorifics analysis assessment assumption avaan bald-on-record behaviour claim communication context conventionalized conversation conversation analysis conversational implicatures convey creaky voice cross-cultural cultural dative deference derived dimensions dyads encode English ethos example expressions face redress face wants fact Fanshel felicity conditions function give Grice's Gricean Gricean Maxim Gumperz H's face H's wants hedges illocutionary force implicate implicature imposition indicates indirect requests indirect speech acts inference instance interaction Keenan kind kinesic Lakoff language usage Levinson linguistic Malagasy Maxim minimize motives negative face negative politeness negative-politeness ness norms off-record strategies on-record output particles particular pattern perhaps personal comm plural politeness strategies positive face positive politeness positive-politeness pragmatic predict pronouns prosodic question rational reasoning record referent honorifics relations relevant ritual semantic sentences social distance social relationships societies sort speaker specific structure suggests switch syntactic Tamil theory tion Tzeltal utterance variables verbs yu9un