Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage

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Cambridge University Press, Feb 27, 1987 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 345 pages
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This study is about the principles for constructing polite speeches. The core of it first appeared in Questions and Politeness, edited by Esther N. Goody (now out of print). It is here reissued with a fresh introduction that surveys the considerable literature in linguistics, psychology and the social sciences that the original extended essay stimulated, and suggests distinct directions for research. The authors describe and account for some remarkable parallelisms in the linguistic construction of utterances with which people express themselves in different languages and cultures. A motive for these parallels is isolated - politeness, broadly defined to include both polite friendliness and polite formality - and a universal model is constructed outlining the abstract principles underlying polite usages. This is based on the detailed study of three unrelated languages and cultures: the Tamil of South India, the Tzeltal spoken by Mayan Indians in Chiapas, Mexico, and the English of the USA and England, supplemented by examples from other cultures. Underneath the apparent diversity of polite behaviour in different societies lie some general pan-human principles of social interaction, and the model of politeness provides a tool for analysing the quality of social relations in any society. This volume will be of special interest to students in linguistic pragmatics, sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, anthropology, and the sociology and social psychology of interaction.
 

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Contents

I
xii
II
xiii
III
1
IV
51
V
55
VI
56
VII
58
VIII
59
XLVII
172
XLVIII
173
XLIX
176
L
178
LI
187
LIII
190
LIV
206
LV
207

IX
61
X
62
XI
64
XII
65
XIV
67
XV
68
XVI
71
XVIII
74
XIX
83
XX
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XXI
87
XXII
91
XXIII
94
XXIV
95
XXV
98
XXVI
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XXVII
103
XXVIII
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XXIX
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XXX
107
XXXI
112
XXXII
113
XXXIII
117
XXXIV
124
XXXV
125
XXXVIII
126
XXXIX
127
XL
128
XLI
129
XLIII
130
XLIV
132
XLV
144
XLVI
145
LVI
209
LVII
210
LVIII
211
LIX
213
LXI
215
LXII
217
LXIV
219
LXV
220
LXVI
221
LXVIII
222
LXIX
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LXX
225
LXXII
226
LXXV
227
LXXVII
228
LXXVIII
229
LXXIX
230
LXXX
231
LXXXII
232
LXXXIII
238
LXXXV
242
LXXXVI
243
LXXXVII
253
LXXXVIII
255
LXXXIX
258
XC
262
XCI
280
XCII
283
XCIII
285
XCIV
301
XCV
328
XCVI
333
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References to this book

Understanding Pragmatics
Jef Verschueren
No preview available - 1999
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About the author (1987)

Stephen C. Levinson is Director of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and Professor of Comparative Linguistics at the University of Nijmegen. His publications include Pragmatics (Cambridge, 1983), Politeness (co-author Cambridge, 1987), Rethinking Linguistic Relativity (co-editor, Cambridge, 1996), Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development (co-editor, Cambridge, 2001) and Presumptive Meaning (2001).

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