The Human and the Humane: Humanity as Argument from Cicero to Erasmus
In times of conflicts and crises, an argument insisting on the humane is commonly heard. In wars, voices demanding a humane treatment of prisoners – as decreed by the Geneva Convention – will be raised. Opposition to social injustice may be framed in a collected call for a humane society. Even educational systems may insist on having a humane perspective among its leading causes. Words referring to man – humane, but also humanistic, humanitarian, even humanity – thus take on status of ideals for mankind. Man, in common and legal speech, thus becomes the conceptual marker of his own perfection. The subject of this book is the early history of this linguistic feature and in particular its argumentative use, from its starting point till early modern times.
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anthropotes Archias argued argument Aulus Gellius autem authors beneficiis beneficium Catullus central century chapter Christ Christian Cicero Cicero’s humanitas Ciceronian humanitas concept of humanitas context cultural despite discussions Divinae Institutiones divine enim Erasmus ethical example exposition expressions fact Greek homines homo Hugh of St human rights humanists humanitarian Humanität ibid idea ideals ideological implied insist Italian humanists Kristeller Lactantius languages later Latin least linguistic literary loan translation man’s manitas mankind medieval Menedemus misericordia modern moral nature notion noun officiis pagan Panaitios passage person Petrarch Phaedrus philosophical political presented provinces quam Quintus reference reflect Renaissance Renaissance Humanism Rhetorica ad Herennium rhetorical Roman Rome Salutati Scipio Scipionic circle Seneca sense slave society speaking speech Stoic Stoicism studia humanitatis studies thinking translation University usage various Verrem Verres virtues Vitruvius warfare word humanitas writings of Cicero