Mechanisms of Angiogenesis
Matthias Clauss, Georg Breier
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 22, 2004 - Medical - 324 pages
Is it advisable to go back from bedside to the bench? During the last decade, few topics encountered such a broad interest in bio- gy and medicine as angiogenesis. The amazing ability of the body to restore blood flow by induction of blood vessel growth as part of an adaptive process has alarmed physicians dealing with diseases in which angiogenesis is either exaggerated (as in tumors) or too slow (as in ischemic diseases of heart and brain). Not surprisingly, pro- and antiangiogenic strategies have found their way into clinical trials. For instance, for the USA, the NIH website in early 2004 displayed 38 clinical studies involving either pro- or antiangiogenic th- apies. Given the expected overwhelming wealth of clinical data, the question may be asked whether further exploration of biological mechanisms is required or whether results from the bedside are instructive enough to proceed. This question depends also on the progress of pro- and antiangiogenic clinical trials. In the following, I give a short overview about some of the progress that has been made in this field. Since Judah Folkman proposed antiangiogenic tumor therapy thirty years ago, it has become increasingly evident that agents which interfere with blood vessel formation also block tumor progression. Accordingly, antiangiogenic therapy has gained much attention as a potential adjunct to conventional c- cer therapy.
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Acad Sci USA activation adhesion Ang1 angio angiogenesis angiogenic angiogenic factors angiopoietin-1 angiostatin angiotensin anti-angiogenic antibody apoptosis arteriogenesis binding Biol Chem blood flow blood vessels Cancer Res capillary Carmeliet Cell Biol cell migration cell proliferation cellular Circ Res Clin Invest clinical coronary cytokines differentiation domain effects embryonic endostatin endothe endothelial cells endothelial growth factor endothelial progenitor cells endothelium EPCs erythropoietin extracellular Ferrara fibrin filopodia formation function human hypoxia hypoxia-inducible increased induced inhibition inhibitors integrin intussusceptive ischemia ischemic isoforms ligand macrophages matrix MC/Mph mechanisms mediated mice microvascular molecules monocyte morphogenesis mouse mRNA mural cell Natl Acad Sci neovascularization oxygen pathway PDGF-B pericytes phenotype phosphorylation Physiol PIGF platelet Proc Natl Acad protein receptor regulation remodeling response role signalling smooth muscle cells sprouting stimulates studies therapy Tie2 tion tissue transgenic tumor tyrosine kinase upregulation vascular endothelial growth vasculature vasculogenesis VEGF-A VEGFR2 vessel wall vitro vivo