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abnormal almshouses amount average become Bureau business enterprize capital causes of poverty Census cent chapter character charity child labor collectivism defects democracy dependent discuss disease distribution of wealth doubtless earnings economic effect efficiency employers estimate eugenic eugenists evident evils example existence extent fact factors families force frequently furnish Furthermore germ germ cell goes without saying greatly human humanitarian illegitimacy immigration important income increase of population indicate individual industrial industrial warfare inherited labor land legislation less means measures ment mental methods minimum movement organization outdoor relief ownership pauperism pension system persons philanthropy political poor poorer classes possible poverty line probably production profits public ownership regulation relief result saving scientific management society standard of living statistics sweating sweating system theory tion trade union traits true unemployed unemployment usually wage-earners wages women workers York
Page 221 - The reason why, in spite of the increase of productive power, wages constantly tend to a minimum which will give but a bare living, is that, with increase in productive power, rent tends to even greater increase, thus producing a constant tendency to the forcing down of wages.
Page 413 - ... (1) the substitution of a science for the individual judgment of the workman; (2) the scientific selection and development of the workman, after each man has been studied, taught, and trained, and one may say experimented with, instead of allowing the workmen to select themselves and develop in a haphazard way; and (3) the intimate cooperation of the management with the workmen, so that they together do the work in accordance with the scientific laws which have been developed, instead of leaving...
Page 418 - Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type.
Page 108 - Families whose total earnings would be sufficient for the maintenance of merely physical efficiency were it not that some portion of it is absorbed by other expenditure, either useful or wasteful.
Page 116 - Whether or not the New York data are sufficient to establish the probability that periods of high unemployment will recur every four years or thereabouts, they do clearly establish that the amount of unemployment is by no means constant, but that it varies from month to month, from season to season, and from year to year.
Page 100 - Those who are in poverty may be able to get a bare sustenance, but they are not able to obtain those necessaries which will permit them to maintain a state of physical efficiency.
Page 483 - It lies not in the unalterable nature of things, but in our particular human institutions, our social arrangements, our tenements and streets and subways, our laws and courts and jails, our religion, our education, our philanthropy, our politics, our industry and our business.
Page 64 - Despite this fact, however, one eighth of the families in America receive more than half of the aggregate income, and the richest one per cent receives a larger income than the poorest fifty per cent. In fact this small class of wealthy property owners receives from property alone as large an income as half our people receive from property and labor.
Page 240 - It is a prevalent opinion that woman owes her present high position to Christianity. I used to believe in this opinion. But in the first three centuries I have not been able to see that Christianity had any favourable effect on the position of women, but, on the contrary, that it tended to lower their character and contract the range of their activity.