Manual for army bakers

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Govt. print. off., 1910 - Cookery - 89 pages
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Page v - Horse) is approved, and is published for the information and government of the Regular Army and the Organized Militia of the United States. By order of the Secretary of War: LEONARD WOOD, Major General, Chief of Staff.
Page 14 - ... similar in appearance. It differs, however, in one important particular — its gluten has not the same elastic, tenacious quality and does not yield so light and well-raised a loaf. Although this fact and its dark color make it less desirable than wheat flour, it is second in importance as a breadstuff. It is more easily cultivated than wheat, especially in cold countries, and consequently costs less. In many parts of Europe it practically replaces wheat among the poor and in 13 the rations...
Page 77 - Two men with a spade and a longhandled shovel can build it in light soil in three-quarters of an hour. If such tools are not available, it may be constructed with trowel, bayonet, intrenching tools, or even with knives. To build the oven, dig down the bank to a vertical face and excavate at the base a hole from 4 to 5 feet horizontally, care being taken to keep the entrance as small as possible; hollow out the sides of the excavation and arch the roof until the floor is about 2 feet 6 inches in its...
Page 74 - F., striking the top and bottom of the loaf with about the same intensity. The quantity of the heat available must be such that a baking temperature will be maintained from thirty minutes to an hour and a half, depending upon the depth of the dough to be baked. Such ovens as are generally constructed in the field must generally be of the simplest type possible—that is, of a single chamber in which the fire is built and withdrawn after sufficient heat has been stored up in the surrounding material...
Page 18 - Israelites had not time to put into their bread when they were brought out of the land of Egypt. A microscopical examination was recently made of some bread over four thousand four hundred years old, found in Egypt, with other remains of a long-vanished people. It was made of ground barley and the yeast cells were plainly visible. A similar process of raising bread with " leaven" is still earned on in some regions of Europe. The
Page 16 - Its color should be white with a faint yellow tinge; after being pressed in the hand it should fall loosely apart; if it stays in lumps it has too much moisture in it; when rubbed between the fingers it should not feel too smooth and powdery, but its individual particles should be vaguely distinguishable; when put between the teeth it should "crunch" a little; its taste should be sweet and nutty without a suspicion of acidity.
Page 71 - ... ajar from the time the loaves are placed in the oven until they are browned, and looked at frequently to see that they are not burning. They should be brown in about fifteen minutes and then the door may be closed, and the baking proceed with less attention. One shifting at least will generally be necessary, and care should be exercised not to jar the pans at this time, for the framework of the loaf is not yet formed throughout and if the crumb falls away from the crust it will not be restored...
Page 69 - System used.—The straight dough system should be used in the field as a saving of time and labor. If using the intermittent type of oven, the doughs should be set so as to follow each other at a period of about two hours and a half if baking double rations, and two hours if baking single rations. This will allow three-fourths of an hour for firing and one-half hour for equalizing temperature. This has been found to be sufficient for each firing after the first, for which one hour and a half should...
Page 16 - After being pressed in the hand flour should fall loosely apart; if it stays in lumps it has too much moisture in it; when rubbed between the fingers it should not feel too smooth and powdery, but its individual particles should bo vaguely distinguishable; when put between the teeth it should "crunch" a little; its taste should be sweet and nutty, •without a suspicion of acidity.

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