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397. The Characteristics of S-Band Aircraft Echoes with Par- 414. Interservice KXS-Band Radar Trials; Over Water Per

ticular Reference to Radar A.A. No. 3 MK, II. G. H. formance Against Surface Targets, J. A. Ramsay, P. B. Beeching and N. Corcoran, OSRD WA-2812-13, Re Blow, and H. J. Worsdall, JEIA 8820, Report M-688, search Report 253, ADRDE, Aug. 4, 1944.

ASE, February 1945.

CP-612.3-M3 CP-622.3-M2 415. An Observation of Diffuse Cloud-Like Echoes, J. L. Paw398. Radar Echoes from the Nearby Atmosphere, Third Report, sey and F. J. Kerr, OSRD II-5-7007(S), Report RP-246, Case 37003-4, Millard W. Baldwin, Jr., Report MM-44 CSIR-RL, Mar. 6, 1945.

CP-621.4-M1 150-4, BTL, Aug. 11, 1944.

CP-621-M1 416. The So-Called Standard Target, A. H. Brown, OEMsr399. Considerations Concerning Radar Coverage Diagrams, 262, Division 14 Report S-43, RL, Mar. 10, 1945. J. L. Pawsey, OSRD II-5-6229(S), Report RP-217,

CP-612.6-M1 CSIR-RL, Aug. 14, 1944.

CP-202.4-M5 417. Radar Cross Section of Ship Targets (Part V), F. C. Mac400. RDF Echoes to be Expected from Objects of Various Shapes, Donald, Report R-2466, NRL, Mar. 12, 1945. OSRD WA-6-21, Extra Mural Res. F.72/80, Report 26,

CP-612.1-M1 Ministry of Supply, DSR.

CP-622.5-M2 418. Radar Results Against Schnorkels: A Commentary on TRE 401. Radar Echoes from Shells Bursts at 4 Meters and 50-Cm T-1787, Sea Returns and the Detection of Schnorkel, OSRD Wavelengths, S. M. Taylor and F. E. W. Bugler, Research

WA-4276-5, JEIA 9111, Report 338, ORS/CC, Mar. 16, Report 260, RRDE, Oct. 9, 1944. CP-622.4-M1 1945. (See reference 413.)

CP-622.1-M4 402. Summer Storm Echoes on Radar MEW, J. S. Marshall, 419. Radar Echoes from Clouds of Water Droplets, F. Hoyle,

R. C. Langille, William M. Palmer, R. A. Rodgers, G. P. Report AC-7930, Report 128, USW, Mar. 16, 1945. Adamson, and F. F. Knowles, Report 18, CAORG, Nov. 420. Comments on Radar Echoes from Water Droplets, (Paper 27, 1944.

CP-621.1-M2 AC-7930, USW Report 128), R. G. Ross, OSRD WA403. The Cancellation of Permanent Echoes by the Use of Co 4149-10, Paper AC-7931, Report 129, USW, Mar. 16, herent Pulses (Interim Report), H. Grayson, OSRD WA


CP-621.2-M1 3482-7C, Technical Note RAD-253, RAE, November 421. Radar Cross Section of Ship Targets (Part VI) W. J. Barr,

CP-623-M8 Report R-2467, NRL, Apr. 10, 1945. CP-612.1-M1 404. The Fading of S-Band Echoes from Ships in the Optical 422. S-Band Radar Echoes from Snow, R. C. Langille, J. S.

Zone, R. I. B. Cooper, OSRD WA-3677-8, Research Marshall, William M. Palmer, and L. G. Tibbles, Report
Report 265, Dec. 12, 1944.
CP-622.2-M3 26, CAORG, June 14, 1945.

CP-621.5-M1 405. Rotating Corner-Reflectors for Ship Identification, Julian 423. Surface Coverage of Some Shipborne Radar Sets on S, X,

M. Sturtevant, OEMsr-262, Division 14 Report 654, and K Bands, J. D. Fairbank and W. M. Fairbank, RL, Jan. 1, 1945.

CP-611.1-M11 OEMsr-262, Service Projects NS-234 and NS-175, Divi406. Reflection from Smooth Curved Surfaces, R. C. Spencer, sion 14 Report 720, RL, June 15, 1945. CP-202.4-M7 OEMsr-262, Division 14, Report 661, RL, Jan. 26, 1945. 424. Echoes from Tropical Rain on X-Band Airborne Radar,

CP-531-M4 Arthur E. Bent, OEMsr-262, Division 14 Report 728, 407. Analysis of Over-Water Tracking, Elizabeth J. Campbell, RL, June 15, 1945.

CP-621.2-M2 OEMsr-262, Service Project NO-166, Division 14 Report 425. Analysis of Storm Echoes in Height Using MHF, J. S. 695, RL, Feb. 12, 1945.

CP-202.12-M1 Marshall, L. G. Eon, and L. G. Tibbles, Report 30, 408. Technical Report on the Maximum Range of Detection of CAORG, June 25, 1945.

CP-621.1-M3 the German Early Warning Radar Equipment, Especially See also: Radar Camouflage, Division 14 Report 766, RL, when Viewing Large, Tight Formations of Bomber Air July 16, 1945.

CP-633-M1 craft, W. E. Bales and K. A. Norton, Report OAD-13, 426. 3000-Megacycle Communication, H. H. Beverage, ORS, VIII Bomber Command OCSO, Sept. 13, 1943.

OEMsr-32, NDRC Projects SC-13 and PDRC-90, RCA, CP-202.4-M1 Mar. 10, 1942.

CP-203.1-M1 409. Performance Checks and Estimation of Vessel Size on 427. Microwave Telephone, Part 1 Omnidirectional, Part II,

Short-Based 10-Cm Radar Sets, D. Lack, OSRD WA Directional, OEMsr-442, NDRC Projects C-42 and 1992-3, JEIA 3124, AORG, Mar. 30, 1944.

SC-13, RCA, Mar. 22, 1943.

CP-203.1-M2 CP-622.2-M1 428. Factors Determining the Range of Radio Communications 410. Report of Trials to Determine the Variations of the Appar in the Various Theaters of Operation, Jack W. Herbstreit,

ent Reflecting Point of Plain 10-Cm Waves from a Destroyer, Report ORG-P-14-1, OCSO, June 3, 1943. CP-732-M1 J. F. Coales and M. Hopkins, OSRD WA-3702-1, Report 429. Radiotelephone Communication on 3000 Megacycles, Paul M-627, ASE, July 1944.

CP-622.2-M2 A. Anderson, K. E. Fitzsimmons, C. L. Barker, and S. T. 411. The Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves by Long Wires and Stephenson, OEMsr-728, NDRC Research Project

Non-Resonant Cylindrical Conductors, J. M. C. Scott and PDRC-647, Division 14 Report 152, Report 2, WashT. Pearcey, JEIA 7286, Research Report 259, RRDE, ington State College, June 12, 1943. CP-203.1-M3 Nov. 13, 1944.

430. An Analysis of the Effect of Frequency on Short Distance 412. Theory of Radar Return from the Schnorkel, P. M. Marcus, Radio Communications, Ross Bateman and William Q. OEMsr-262, Division 14 Report 671, RL, Jan. 15, 1945. Crichlow, Report ORB-P-15-1, OCSO, Aug. 18, 1943. CP-622.1-M2

CP-732.1-M1 413. Sea Returns and the Detection of Schnorkel, G. G. Mac- 431. Use of the 25- to 50-Mc/s Band for Short Range Wireless

farlane, OSRD WA-4196-8, JEIA 8643, Report T-1787, Communication, OSRD WA-1022-3, Report 130, AORG, TRE, Feb. 13, 1945. (See reference 418.) CP-622.1-M3 Aug. 27, 1943.


432. Trials with a 250-Watt Frequency-Modulated VHF Sender

Across a Sea Water Path Beyond the Optical Range, G. W.
Higgins and W. H. Hill, OSRD WA-1352-5, Report 878,
SRDE, September 1943.

CP-712-M1 433. Radio Communication in Jungles, Arthur C. Omberg,

Report ORG-2-1, OCSO, Sept. 1, 1943. CP-711-M1 434. Measurement of Factors Affecting Jungle Radio Com

munication, Jack W. Herbstreit and William Q. Crichlow, Report ORB-2-3, OCSO, Nov. 10, 1943.

CP-711-M2 435. Methods for Improving the Effectiveness of Jungle Radio

Communication, Technical Bulletin Sig. 4, U.S. War
Department, Jan. 14, 1944.

CP-711-M3 436. Survey of Existing Information and Data on Atmospheric

Noise Level over the Frequency Range 1-30 Mc/s, H. A. Thomas and R. E. Burgess, OSRD WA-3201-2, JEIA 2815, Paper RRB/C-90, DSIR, Feb. 21, 1944.

CP-732-M2 437. Methods of Reducing Radar Interference to Communication,

Arthur C. Omberg, Joseph B. Epperson, and William Q.
Crichlow, Report ORB-E-27-2, OCSO, Apr. 19, 1944.

CP-731-M1 438. The Application of Passive Repeaters to point to Point

Communication at VHF and UHF, Ross Bateman, Re

port ORB-P-20-1, OCSO, Apr. 29, 1944. CP-721-M1 439a.Summary of Radio Propagation Problems in Southwest

Pacific Area, W. C. Babcock, JEIA 6298, Report US 413.44/R113, Intel. Br. OCSO, Sept. 6, 1944.

CP-713-M1 439b.Point to Point Communication in MF and Via Ground

Wave Propagation, W. C. Babcock, JEIA 6770, Report 413.44/R423.4, Intel. Br. OCSO-SWPA, Aug. 15, 1944.

440. Measurements of Factors Affecting Radio Communication

& Loran Navigation in SWPA, Ross Bateman, Jack W. Herbstreit, and Robert B. Zechiel, Report ORB-2-4, OCSO, Dec. 16, 1944.

CP-713-M2 441. Field Trials of Ultra Short Wave Frequency and Amplitude

Modulated Multichannel Radio Telephone Systems, A. W.
Pearson, W. J. Bray, J. H. H. Merriman, R. W. White,
J. G. Hobbs, C. H. Gibbs, and H. Prain, Radio Report

1115, POED, Mar. 27, 1944. 442. Physics of the Air, W. J. Humphreys, McGraw-Hill Book

Co., 1940, p. 457. 443. Ergebnisse der Exakten Naturwissenshaften, H. Plendi

and G. Eckart, Berlin, 17, 1938, p. 334. 444. "Reflection of Waves in an Inhomogeneous Absorbing

Medium," P. S. Epstein, Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, 16, 1930, p. 627. 445. “Penetration of a Potential Barrier by Electrons,” Carl

Eckart, The Physical Review, 35, 1930, p. 1303. 446. "The Relation of Drop Size to Intensity,” J. O. Laws

and D. A. Parsons, Transactions of the American Geo

physical Union, 1943, p. 452. 447. “Ultra Short Wave Propagation," I. C. Schelleng, Chas.

R. Burrows, and E. B. Ferrell, Bell System Technical

Journal, April 1933. (See reference 24.) 448. Report JANP 102, Joint Communications Board. 449. “On the Connection Formulas and the Solutions of the

Wave Equation,” R. E. Langer, The Physical Review, 51,

1937, p. 670. 450. Treatise on Theory of Bessel Functions, George Neville

Watson, Cambridge University Press, Second Edition, 1944.



This Bibliography is a comprehensive tabulation of the body of scientific reports pertaining to wave propagation through the troposphere, compiled by the Columbia University Wave Propagation Group to about October 31, 1945. For convenience and clarity it has been divided into twenty sections, each dealing with a particular phase of propagation phenomena. The various headings are self-explanatory, and the list of sources and their abbreviated designations which precede the Bibliography proper will be found helpful.

In preparing the Bibliography, about 560 papers were considered. Of these, 115 were excluded as obsolete, or because their contents were included in other reports retained. An additional 46 papers dealing with doppler effect and the transmission of sound in water were also excluded as not directly relevant. It is believed that the approximately 400 titles included form a fairly exhaustive compilation of present knowledge of electromagnetic wave propagation through the troposphere.

The reports are grouped and a Bibliography number has been assigned to each report. The letter to the right of the Bibliography number designates the present United States security classification.

Requests for copies of the reports listed herein may be made by Bibliography number referring to this edition, but should be made through the proper channels. The Central Radio Bureau is the distributing agent for American reports in Great Britain and for propagation reports originating in Great Baddow, Chelmsford, England. All other British reports may be obtained from the British government department controlling the sources.

The OSRD Liaison Office will, upon request, supply readers in the United States who are not in the Armed Services with all reports originating outside of the United States. They will supply Army and Navy units with all except JEIA-numbered reports. Requests for the latter should be directed to the Joint Electronics Information Agency, Munitions Building, Washington, D.C.

In general, application should be made to the NDRC Chairman's Office for reports written by NDRC Divisions, Committees, or contractors, NDRC Section 6.1 being the present exception; to the Bureau of Ships for reports from Naval Research Laboratory, Navy Radio and Sound Laboratory, and all reports appearing in Section 20 of the Bibliography (Under-Water Sound Propagation); to the Office of the Chief Signal Officer for Signal Corps reports; to Inter-Service Radio Propagation Laboratory, Bureau of Standards for IRPL reports. Requests for case-numbered BTL reports should be sent to the Director of Research, Bell Telephone Laboratories, 463 West Street, New York, N. Y.

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Operational Research Group;

Office of the Chief Signal Officer ICI.
Radio Corporation of America

Radiation Laboratory, M.I.T.
Radio Research Laboratory, Harvard JMRP.

South West Pacific

Technical Committee on Air Warn MO.

ing, Office of the Secy of War; Met ResCom. Reports distributed by Radiation NMS. Laboratory

NPL. University of California, Division of ORS-ADGB.

War Research
Weather Division, Headquarters Army POED.
Air Forces

Wave Propagation Group


Australian Operational Research

Australian Technical Paper

Council for Scientific and Industrial

Research, Radiophysics Laboratory TRE.
Royal Australian Air Force

Aircraft and Armament Experimental

USWP-WC. Advisory Council on Scientific Re

search and Technical Development
Air Defense Research and Develop- ORS-WAC.

ment Establishment
Army Operational Research Group
Admiralty Signal Establishment CAORG.
British Admiralty Delegation
British Central Scientific Office
Baddow Research Laboratory

ORS-RNZAF. Coast Artillery Experimental Establishment

Central Radio Bureau
Coordination of Valve Development

Committee, Clarendon Laboratory
Director of Meteorological Office
Department of Scientific and Indus- ORS-SEA.

trial Research

General Electric Company
Imperial Chemical Industries
Journal of the Institution of Electrical

Joint Meteorological Radio Propaga-

tion Sub-Committee Ministry of Aircraft Production Meteorological Office, Air Ministry Meteorological Research Committee Naval Meteorological Service National Physical Laboratory Operational Research Section, Air De

fense of Great Britain Post Office Engineering Department Royal Aircraft Establishment Radio Research Board Radar Research and Development

Establishment Synoptic Divisions Technical Memo

randum Signal Research and Development

Establishment Telecommunications Research Estab

lishment Ultra Short Wave Propagation Panel of the RDF Application Committee Ultra Short Wave Propagation Panel, Working Committee

CANADIAN Operational Research Section, Western Air Command, Royal Canadian Air Force Canadian Army Operational Research Group

NEW ZEALAND Operational Research Station, Royal N.Z. Air Force Radio Development Laboratory, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research-New Zealand

SOUTH EAST ASIA Operational Research Section, South East Asia

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