## Historical and technical survey |

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Page 106

13.2 PROCEDURE The variation of the index of refraction perpendicular to the

path of a radio wave results in a

...

13.2 PROCEDURE The variation of the index of refraction perpendicular to the

path of a radio wave results in a

**curvature**of the ray toward the higher index. The**curvature**of the ray is approximately equal to the rate of decrease of the index of...

Page 190

A situation frequently realized in practice is that in which the

is independent of height above ground. This is known as standard rejraction. The

term standard propagation is used to designate propagation under conditions ...

A situation frequently realized in practice is that in which the

**curvature**of the raysis independent of height above ground. This is known as standard rejraction. The

term standard propagation is used to designate propagation under conditions ...

Page 195

As will be shown in Section 17.2.4, dn/dh is the negative of the

in the atmosphere, and 1/a is the

these two quantities (their numerical difference) is the

to ...

As will be shown in Section 17.2.4, dn/dh is the negative of the

**curvature**of a rayin the atmosphere, and 1/a is the

**curvature**of the earth. The algebraic sum ofthese two quantities (their numerical difference) is the

**curvature**of the ray relativeto ...

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### Common terms and phrases

altitude Anomalous Propagation antenna attenuation azimuth band characteristic values Committee on Propagation computed constant coverage diagram CUDWR curvature curve decibels decrease determine diffraction diffraction region direct distance Division 14 Report duct earth effect elevation equation equipment experiments factor field intensity field strength free space frequency Fresnel zones functions gradient ground height horizontal humidity index of refraction JEIA land layer lobe angles maximum measurements meter method microwave miles mode moisture NDRC nonstandard propagation NRSL obtained operational optical OSRD path difference pattern permanent echoes phase plane plotted polarization problem radar radar cross section Radio Propagation Radio Waves radius range receiver reflection coefficient refractive index region Research signal strength Snell's law standard atmosphere superrefraction target temperature inversion theory tion transmission transmitter trapping Tropospheric variation vertical Wave Propagation Wave Propagation Group wavelength weather X band zone