## Historical and technical survey |

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Page 106

181 PURPOSE This report is a theoretical evaluation of errors in altitude, azimuth

, and range caused by atmospheric ... The rate of decrease of the index of

refraction in a

above ...

181 PURPOSE This report is a theoretical evaluation of errors in altitude, azimuth

, and range caused by atmospheric ... The rate of decrease of the index of

refraction in a

**standard atmosphere**is 12 X 10-6 unit per 1,000 ft up to 4,000 ftabove ...

Page 108

Range 75 miles. True Angle of sight (degrees) angle

altitude (feet)

cause errors to exceed those specified by military characteristics. For a duct

depth ...

Range 75 miles. True Angle of sight (degrees) angle

**Standard**Tropical Errors inaltitude (feet)

**Standard**Tropical Ducts in the lower layer of the**atmosphere**willcause errors to exceed those specified by military characteristics. For a duct

depth ...

Page 195

Consequently the vertical gradient of M for the

dM = /dn 1\ dh \dh a J 106 1 (!«) 106 (10) which has the value 0.118 MU per

meter (0.036 MU per ft). The value of M at any height, relative to the surface value

Mo, ...

Consequently the vertical gradient of M for the

**standard atmosphere**is <dn ,dhdM = /dn 1\ dh \dh a J 106 1 (!«) 106 (10) which has the value 0.118 MU per

meter (0.036 MU per ft). The value of M at any height, relative to the surface value

Mo, ...

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### Common terms and phrases

altitude Anomalous Propagation antenna attenuation azimuth band characteristic values Committee on Propagation computed constant coverage diagram CUDWR curvature curve decibels decrease determine diffraction diffraction region direct distance Division 14 Report duct earth effect elevation equation equipment experiments factor field intensity field strength free space frequency Fresnel zones functions gradient ground height horizontal humidity index of refraction JEIA land layer lobe angles maximum measurements meter method microwave miles mode moisture NDRC nonstandard propagation NRSL obtained operational optical OSRD path difference pattern permanent echoes phase plane plotted polarization problem radar radar cross section Radio Propagation Radio Waves radius range receiver reflection coefficient refractive index region Research signal strength Snell's law standard atmosphere superrefraction target temperature inversion theory tion transmission transmitter trapping Tropospheric variation vertical Wave Propagation Wave Propagation Group wavelength weather X band zone