## Concepts and principles for the application of nonlinear structural analysis in bridge design |

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analysis to calculate beam element behavior concept behavior mode buckling calculate demand Caltrans capacity values chapter column complex components and modes compression computer program connection considered crack cross section damage based design defined demand and capacity demand values demand-capacity comparisons demand-capacity measures DRAIN-2DX ductility demand elastic-perfectly-plastic Element Type ensure estimate example expansion joint geometric nonlinearity hence hinge region interaction lateral deflection lateral load linear analysis Linear Elastic linear structural analysis load factors material nonlinearity maximum mode shapes modes of behavior nodes nonlinear behavior nonlinear dynamic analysis nonlinear model P-A analysis P-A effect P-V-M demands performance analysis plastic hinge prescriptive rules ratio Rayleigh damping reason reinforced concrete remain essentially elastic response spectrum secant stiffness shear link shown in Figure simple specified static pushover analysis strain strength based design strength capacity strength demands stress tension true large displacements truss bar Type 15 usually viscous damping Z-Factor zero length