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Psychometric theory and language testing
Language proficiency and academic achievement
Some New Methods and Some New Results
14 other sections not shown
ability achievement acquisition appear approach appropriate aspects assumption Chapter cloze tests coefficients cognitive communication competence components comprehension considered construct context correlations deletion dictation difficulty discrete-point discussion educational effect English estimates evidence examine example expected fact factor analysis Figure findings foreign language four functional given grammar hypothesis important included indicate integrative interpretation involved knowledge language proficiency language testing learning least less linguistic listening loadings matrix meaning measures method native nature noted Oller oral interview performance possible presented problem procedure produce pronunciation question reading reason referred relationship relatively reliability reported representative responses rotation sample scores second language seems skills solution speakers speaking specific statistical structure subjects subtests suggested Table tasks theoretical theory trait types University validity variables variance vocabulary writing