Photosynthesis, Volume 8
Thylakoid membrane and pigment organization. Thylakoid lipids. Chlorophyll - protein complexes of higher plants and green algae. Fractionation of chloroplasts by procedures that do not involve SDS. Localization of components within thylakoid membranes. Chlorophyll - protein complexes in organisms that have accessory pigments other than chlorophyll b. Structure of higher plant and green algae thylakoid membranes deduced from electron microscope studies. Structure of other photosynthetic organisms. Photosynthetic accessory proteins with bilin prosthetic groups. Classification of cyanobacterial and rhodophytan biliproteins. Phycobilin prosthetic groups. Subunit structure of the phycobiliproteins. Relationships among biliproteins: evolutionary implications. Aggregation and spectroscopic properties of biliproteins. Ultrastructure of higher assembly form of biliproteins. Phycobilisomes. Cryptomonad biliproteins. Primary processes of photosynthesis. Basis properties of chlorophyll molecules. The photosystem I reaction center. The photosystem II reaction center. Energy transfer in the photosysthetic apparatus. Photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation. Historical background. From water to photosystem II. From photosystem II to photosystem I. From photosystem I to NADP. Photophosphorylation: general. Mechanism of photophosphorylation. Partial reactions of photophosphorylation. Photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Formulation. Principal aspects. The reactions of the PCR cycle. Regulation. The C4 pathway. Whole leaf measurements of C4 photosynthesis. Simplified scheme of the C4 cycle. C4 subgroups. Methodology and approaches to the study of C4. In vitro studies in a C4 subgroup illustrated (NADP-ME). Regulation at the cellular level. Subcellular organelles in C4: structure and general function. Starch, sucrose, and nitrate assimilation in C4. Significance of C4 photosynthesis. Crassulacean acid metabolism. Malic acid synthesis in the dark. Metabolism during the transition from dark to light. Malic acid consumption in the light. Photosynthetic metabolism following deacidification. Circadian rhythms and regulation of CAM. The C2 chemo- and photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle. The carboxylation or oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate as the primary events in the C3 and C2 cycles. Mapping the remainder of the C2 cycle. Differences between the C2 carbon oxidation cycle of respiration and "dark respiration". The function of the C2 cycle. Concentrating CO2 at the site of carboxylation: a strategy for suppressing photorespiration. The evolution of photorespiration. Unresolved problems. Chlorophyll biosynthesis. The biochemical sequence. Control of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Development of photosynthetic function during chloroplast biogenesis. Structural aspects of chloroplast development. The development of photosynthetic electron trandport and photophosphorylation. The development of the photosynthetic carbon pathway. The development of yhr chloroplast envelope. The development of photosynthetic function during illumination. The control of the development of photosynthetic function. Light-energy-dependent processes other than CO2 assimilation. Light-coupled reduction of oxaloacetate and the C4 dicarboxylic acid shuttle. Light-coupled reduction and assimilation of inorganic nitrogen. Light-coupled reduction and assimilation of inorganic sulfur. Light-coupled reduction of oxidized glutathione and associated reductive reactions. Light-coupled activation of chloroplast enzymes.
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Structure of Higher Plant and Green Algae Thylakoid
Primary Processes of Photosynthesis
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