Navigation

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 4, 2003 - Science - 427 pages
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Global positioning systems like GPS or the future European Galileo are influencing the world of navigation tremendously. Today, everybody is concerned with navigation even if unaware of this fact. Therefore, the interest in navigation is steadily increasing. This book provides an encyclopedic view of navigation. Fundamental elements are presented for a better understanding of the techniques, methods, and systems used in positioning and guidance. The book consists of three parts. Beside a historical review and maps, the first part covers mathematical and physical fundamentals. The second part treats the methods of positioning including terrestrial, celestial, radio- and satellite-based, inertial, image-based, and integrated navigation. Routing and guidance are the main topics of the third part. Applications on land, at sea, in the air, and in space are considered, followed by a critical outlook on the future of navigation. This book is designed for students, teachers, and people interested in entering the complex world of navigation.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
13 Quality parameters
4
14 Applications and phases of navigation
5
15 User requirements
6
16 Miscellaneous
7
Historical review
9
22 Hellenistic period and Roman Empire
10
23 Middle ages
11
942 Comparison of GPS and GLONASS
182
95 Galileo
183
952 System architecture
184
953 Satellite signal and observables
185
954 System services
186
96 Other satellitebased navigation systems
187
Augmentation systems
189
102 Differential GNSS
191

24 Seventeenth and eighteenth century
12
25 Nineteenth and twentieth century
13
3 Mathematical fundamentals
19
312 Transformations
23
313 Differential relations
29
32 Principles of position determination
31
322 Position fixing
32
33 Principles of velocity determination
39
34 Principles of attitude determination
43
342 Least squares approach
45
35 Accuracy measures
46
352 Accuracy equivalences
49
362 Recursive least squares adjustment
50
363 Discrete Kalman filtering
52
37 Principles of routing and guidance
55
372 Combinatorial optimization
56
4 Physical fundamentals
59
412 Doppler frequency shift
62
42 Electromagnetic wave propagation
65
422 Atmospheric structure
66
423 Phase and group velocity
70
424 Lineofsight ground and sky waves
72
43 Observables from electromagnetic waves
75
432 Range rates and velocities
76
Maps
77
52 Types of maps
78
53 Map projections
80
54 Digital maps
83
542 Modeling and graph theory
84
543 Navigable maps and requirements
90
544 Standardization and products
93
Terrestrial navigation
99
612 Units
100
613 Terms
101
62 Instruments and observables
105
622 Heights and depths
108
623 Velocities
109
624 Directions
111
625 Time
113
63 Position determination
115
64 Drift
115
641 Drift determination
115
642 Drift correction
116
Celestial navigation
119
722 Time systems
125
73 Celestial fix by spherical resection
127
731 Observation of altitudes
128
732 Mathematical model
130
74 Star tracker
133
742 Mathematical model
134
743 Reduction of star coordinates
135
Terrestrial radio navigation
137
822 Nondirectional beacon
139
824 VHFomnidirectional range
140
825 Doppler VOR
141
827 Tactical air navigation
142
83 Areabased systems
143
831 Phasedout systems
144
832 LoranC
145
833 Datatrak
154
834 Digital television networks
156
835 Cellular communication networks
157
84 Aircraft landing systems
161
842 Microwave landing system
164
Satellitebased navigation
167
922 Tsikada
170
932 System architecture Space segment
171
933 Satellite signal and observables
174
934 System capabilities and accuracies
176
935 Modernization concept
179
94 GLONASS
181
1022 Mathematical models
192
1023 Systems and concepts
197
1024 Multiplereferencestation concept
199
1025 Data transfer
200
103 Integrity monitoring
204
1031 Integritymonitoring services
206
104 Examples of augmentation systems
207
1042 Spacebased systems
210
Inertial navigation
213
112 Sensors
216
1122 Gyroscopes
219
113 Navigation equations
225
1132 Inertial frame
227
1133 Local level frame
228
114 Platform alignment
234
1142 Error control
236
1152 Influence of sensor errors
241
1153 Total system performance
243
12 Imagebased navigation
245
1214 Sensors
249
122 Impacts on imagebased navigation
251
1222 Digital image processing
257
1223 Computer vision
261
123 Image sequence analysis
262
1231 Analysis criteria
263
1232 Processing strategy
264
1233 Image correspondence techniques
267
124 Imagebased navigation techniques
270
1242 Remote positioning
272
1243 Exemplary realizations
273
Integrated navigation
275
133 Principles of sensor fusion
279
1332 Filter design
280
134 Typical multisensor systems
282
1342 GNSS and INS
286
1343 GNSS and LoranC
289
1344 GPS GLONASS and Galileo
292
1345 Map aiding
293
Routing and guidance
297
1422 Path algorithm realization
310
1423 Complex applications
319
143 Route guidance
327
1432 Guidance the whole concept
331
Vehicle and traffic management
335
1512 Specific aspects
339
152 Landbased traffic management
340
1521 Invehicle navigation systems
341
1522 Advisory routing systems
343
1523 Fleet management systems
346
1524 Desktop routing systems
348
153 Maritime traffic management
349
1531 Electronic chart display and information system
350
1532 Vessel traffic services
352
154 Air traffic management
353
1541 Flight management system
354
1542 Air traffic control
355
1543 Air traffic services
356
16 Application examples
359
1613 Aeronautic navigation
364
1614 Space navigation
371
162 Specific applications
373
1622 Indoor navigation
375
1623 Mobile mapping
377
1624 Locationbased services
379
1625 Mobile robotics
382
163 Other applications
384
1632 Timing
388
Critical outlook
391
References
395
Index
407
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References to this book

Orbits
Guochang Xu
Limited preview - 2008