Distillation: principles and practices
A completely thorough and up-to-date guide to modern distillation methods and their applications
Distillation has been used for separating liquid mixtures for more than two thousand years, and it continues to be the most widely used separation technique in key industries throughout the industrialized world. Although the basic principles have remained the same since the days of the ancient Egyptians, new distillation and distillation control methods continue to be developed to satisfy a variety of highly specialized requirements.
Encyclopedic in scope, this book provides distillation technicians with a uniquely comprehensive, up-to-date account of distillation methods currently employed in the oil, petrochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. The authors begin by acquainting readers with the principles of vapor-liquid equilibrium and the essential calculations for determining phase equilibria and equilibrium curves. Subsequent chapters are devoted to practical discussions of virtually all modern distillation methods, including batch, single stage, multistage continuous, multistage batch, and others. A wide array of industrial applications are described, including everything from crude oil distillation and argon recovery from air to water purification and ammonia recovery from wastewater. Special sections deal with the separation of azeotropic mixtures and the energy demand of distillation processes. Concluding chapters are devoted to detailed, extremely well illustrated descriptions of practical equipment design and modern distillation control methods.
Distillation: Principles and Practice is an indispensable working resource for distillation technicians working in the oil, petrochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries.
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SingleStage Distillation and Condensation
Multistage Continuous Distillation Rectification
5 other sections not shown
activity coefficients Azeotropic Distillation azeotropic mixture batch distillation binary mixture boiling point border distillation line bottom fraction bottom product calculated Chem chemical equilibrium column C-2 component condenser control configuration correlations dew point diameter distillate concentration distillation border distillation column distillation processes enthalpy entrainer Equation equilibrium line equilibrium stages ethanol flow rate gas load heat requirement Hence high boiler interfacial area intermediate boiler liquid concentration liquid feed liquid flow liquid holdup liquid load liquid phase low boiler maldistribution mass transfer efficiency material balance minimum azeotrope minimum reflux mole fraction number of equilibrium operating line overhead fraction overhead product packed columns parameters partition pinch plot pressure drop pure reaction reactive azeotropes reactive distillation reboil ratio reflux ratio RL separation shown in Fig Stichlmair stoichiometric stream structured packings substance temperature ternary mixture transfer coefficient transfer units tray columns triangular diagram vapor pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium