Allgemeine und Historische Quartärgeologie
Quaternary, the youngest part of Earth history, is characterized by extreme climate variations. Forming the uppermost layer, Quaternary deposits are the ground on which most constructions are built. They contain a large proportion of the groundwater and of the aggregate resources and, at the same time, they form the substrate on which our modern soils have developed. Many environmental issues, such as groundwater protection and soil contamination, involve problems of Quaternary geology, although glacial sediments and the climate-controlled Quaternary stratigraphy differ fundamentally from the deposits of other ages. Quaternary and glacial geology combines not only the principles of quaternary geology but is also an introduction to the methods of investigation and an overview of Quaternary stratigraphy for geoscientists and archaeologists.
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accumulated Alpine Alps Baltic Ice Lake Baltic Sea basin borehole central channels characterised clasts clay climatic Cold Stage cold-stage correlated Cromerian dating deep-sea deposits diamicton drainage drumlins Early Pleistocene east Eemian Ehlers Elsterian end moraines erosion Europe fauna FIGURE fluvial formation formed Gibbard glaciated area glacier gravel Holocene Holsteinian ice advance Ice Age ice margin ice wedges ice-dammed lakes ice-marginal identified Illinoian indicate Interstadial investigations landforms last interglacial Late Weichselian Late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet layers loess lower major maximum meltwater Middle Mountains Netherlands North America North Germany northern occurred oxygen-isotope palaeosols periglacial period permafrost phase Pinus pollen pollen zones Quaternary recent reconstructed region Rhine Riss River rock Saalian sand sandur sea level sedimentary sediments sequence silt solifluction southern stratigraphical subdivision subglacial Substage surface temperature terraces thick Tiglian upper valley varve vegetation Warm Stage Wisconsinan Glaciation Würmian Younger Dryas zone