A philosophical and mathematical dictionary: containing an explanation of the terms, and an account of the several subjects, comprised under the heads mathemetics, astronomy, and philosophy both natural and experimental; with an historical account of the rise, progress and present state of these sciences; also memoirs of the lives and writings of the most eminent authors, both ancient and modern, who by their discoveries or improvements have contributed to the advancement of them, Volume 2
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absciss altitude ancient angle appears arithmetical astronomical axis body called centre circle colours curve cycloid degrees denotes Descartes diameter distance divided earth ecliptic equal equation feet figure fluid fluxion force Geometry given glass gravity greater Hence horizon hyperbola inches infinite series instrument invented kind latitude length less longitude magic square manner mathematical mathematician means measure meridian method Method of Fluxions moon moon's motion moving multiplied Newton nutation object oblique observations observatory Optics orbit parabola parallax parallel pendulum perpendicular Philos philosopher plane plane sailing pole polygon porisms prime number produced proportion Ptolemy published quadrant quadrature quantity radius ratio rays refraction Regiomontanus resistance right ascension right line Royal Society sailing Saturn screw side sine sphere square stars sun's supposed surface tangent telescope theorem tion Trans treatise triangle velocity weight wheel
Page 106 - But hitherto I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena, and I frame no hypothesis ; for whatever is not deduced from the phenomena is to be called an hypothesis; and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy.
Page 106 - ... whether metaphysical or physical, whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy. In this philosophy, particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena, and afterwards rendered general by induction. Thus it was tluit the impenetrability, the mobility, and the impulsive force of bodies, and the laws of motion and of gravitation, were discovered. And to us it is enough, that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained,...
Page 25 - And therefore that Nature may be lasting, the Changes of corporeal Things are to be placed only in the various Separations and new Associations and Motions of these permanent Particles; compound Bodies being apt to break, not in the midst of solid Particles, but where those Particles are laid together, and only touch in a few Points.
Page 106 - Hitherto we have explained the phenomena of the heavens and of our sea by the power of gravity, but have not yet assigned the cause of this power. This is certain, that it must proceed from a cause that penetrates to the very centres of the sun and planets, without suffering the least diminution of its force; that operates not according to the quantity of the surfaces of the particles upon which it acts (as mechanical causes...
Page 106 - And now we might add something concerning a certain most subtle spirit which pervades and lies hid in all gross bodies; by the force and action of which spirit the particles of bodies attract one another at near distances, and cohere, if contiguous; and electric bodies operate to greater distances, as well repelling as attracting the...
Page 103 - To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and directed to contrary pans.
Page 106 - This most beautiful System of the Sun, Planets, and Comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.
Page 103 - The vis insita, or innate -force of matter, is a power of resisting, by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to persevere in its present state, whether it be of rest, or of moving uniformly forward in a right line.
Page 25 - Earth composed of old worn Particles and Fragments of Particles, would not be of the same Nature and Texture now, with Water and Earth composed of entire Particles, in the Beginning. And therefore that Nature may be lasting, the Changes of corporeal Things are to be placed only in the various Separations and new Associations and Motions of these permanent Particles...
Page 95 - ... from the centre of the earth to which» •we can rise, neither at the tops of the loftiest buildings, nor even on the summits of the highest mountains, it appeared to him reasonable to conclude that this power must extend much farther than was usually thought.