Individualism & Collectivism
An examination of the differences between collectivists (those who view themselves primarily as part of a whole, and who are motivated by the norms and duties imposed by the collective entity) and individualists (those who are motivated by their own preferences and needs).
Horizontal Versus Vertical
Factors Conducive to Individualism and Collectivism
Tightness Cultural Complexity and IndividuahsmCollectivism
Antecedents and Geographic Distribution
The Situation Can Trigger Individualism or Collectivism
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Training
Advice to Individualists and Collectivists
Evaluation of Individualism
Measurement of Individualism
A Probable Developmental Sequence
Consequences of Individualism
About the Book and Author
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allocentrics American analysis argued asked attitudes attributes Bontempo Chapter child rearing China Chinese cognitive collective collectivist cultures collectMst communitarian competition conflict constructs correlated countries cross-cultural cultural syndromes developed East German economic emphasize employees etic example expect factor analysis factors feel friends goals Gudykunst Hofstede horizontal collectivism horizontal individualism idiocentric important included indi individualism and collectivism individualist and collectivist individualistic cultures individualists tend ingroup ingroup members interaction interdependent interpersonal Japan Japanese kibbutz Kitayama less levels linked loose Markus and Kitayama measures norms outgroups parents percent person political power distance Psychology rates relationships samples scale scores self-efficacy showed situations social behavior Social Distance social loafing societies status suggested tendency tight tion tive tivist traditional Triandis tures United values versus vertical collectivism vertical individualism vertical individualists vidualism vidualistic Waorani whereas women
Page 22 - Situated among barbarous tribes, he does what is proper to a situation among barbarous tribes. In a position of sorrow and difficulty, he does what is proper to a position of sorrow and difficulty. The superior man can find himself in no situation in which he is not himself.
Page 2 - A preliminary definition of individualism is a social pattern that consists of loosely linked individuals who view themselves as independent of collectives; are primarily motivated by their own preferences, needs, rights, and the contracts they have established with others...
Page 2 - Collectivism may be initially defined as a social pattern consisting of closely linked individuals who see themselves as parts of one or more collectives (family, co-workers, tribe, nation); are primarily motivated by the norms of, and duties imposed by, those collectives...
Page 21 - Christian injunction to love thy enemies. 4. Virtue with regard to one's tasks in life consists of trying to acquire skills and education, working hard, not spending more than necessary, being patient, and persevering. Conspicuous consumption is taboo, as is losing one's temper.
Page 84 - Denmark on the one hand, and Britain and the United States on the other, in the proportions of elderly people who say that they are helped by children or relatives with different things.
Page 173 - Following self-chosen ethical principles. Particular laws or social agreements are usually valid because they rest on such principles. When laws violate these principles, one acts in accordance with the principle. Principles are universal principles of justice: the equality of human rights and respect for the dignity of human beings as individual persons.
Page 9 - Triandis (1995), in-groups are groups of individuals "about whose welfare a person is concerned, with whom that person is willing to cooperate without demanding equitable returns, and separation from whom leads to anxiety
Page 192 - If the group is slowing me down, it is better to leave it and work alone...
Page 227 - Fry, LW, Kerr, S., & Lee, C. (1986). Effects of different leader behavior under different levels of task interdependence. Human Relations 39, 1067-1082.
Page 221 - Cultural variation in cognition: The role of self-concept in the attitude behavior link. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Academy of Management, Las Vegas, Nevada.