Trade Liberalization and Poverty: A Handbook

Front Cover
Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2001 - Business & Economics - 405 pages

Sponsored by the UK Department for International Development, this book deals directly with concerns that reform may have adverse effects on poverty in developing countries. The first part of the book recaps the current debates over trade policy and anti-poverty policy and the connections between them. The second part explores ten areas of trade policy that are likely to figure in future trade negotiations and examines the possible impact upon poverty in each case. The authors argue that the poverty impact of trade liberalization is extremely country specific, being pro-poor in some cases and anti-poor in others. However, they believe that it is better to tackle poverty concerns directly (for example, by safety nets and investments to facilitate structural reform) rather than through the continuation of protectionist policies. Given the popular suspicions about trade liberalization, this handbook will make an important contribution to debate on globalization and poverty.

 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Selected pages

Contents

About this Handbook
3
11 Why poverty matters
4
12 Why trade liberalization matters
5
13 Why the links matter
6
14 What economists bring to the debate
8
15 Main lessons
10
The Debate over Trade Liberalization
13
21 What is openness?
14
96 Developed country trade policies and poverty
198
962 Market access for tropical products
200
964 Reductions in export subsidies and domestic support
201
965 Letting price signals work
202
97 Conclusion
203
Annex to Chapter 9
205
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights TRIPs
208
102 The economics of TRIPs
210

22 The costs and benefits of openness
15
222 Costs of openness
16
23 Openness prices and competition
17
24 Openness growth and technology
21
242 Openness and growth in practice
23
243 Pathways of influence
25
244 A tentative conclusion
26
25 Openness and volatility
27
252 Empirical evidence
28
26 Openness and politics
30
262 Why is protection the norm?
31
263 Why are trade restrictions used for protection rather than other means?
33
264 Implications for trade liberalization
34
Poverty and the Poor
37
311 Sens concept of poverty
38
312 The World Banks concept of poverty
40
315 Empowerment
43
32 Measuring poverty
44
322 Participatory approaches
45
323 Classifying measures of poverty
46
324 Poverty or inequality?
49
33 The extent of poverty worldwide
50
34 Who are the Poor?
55
35 What causes poverty?
57
351 The interaction of endowments and shocks
59
Linking Trade Liberalization and Poverty A Conceptual Framework
65
41 The individual and the household
67
412 Generalizing the basic view of the household
69
414 Adjusting to trade shocks
70
42 Price transmission
72
422 Indirect effects and the domain of trade
74
profits wages and employment
75
432 The trade approach
77
433 The development approach
78
434 Feedback from the enterprise to the price transmission channel
80
45 Shocks risks and vulnerability
84
46 Growth
86
Previous Approaches to Linking Trade and Poverty
89
51 The antimonde and the role of theory
91
52 Descriptive and qualitative approaches
92
53 Databased approaches
94
54 Modelling approaches
95
541 Partial versus general equilibrium
97
543 Examples of modelling
98
55 Conclusions
99
Annex to Chapter 5
101
5A2 National level modelling
103
5A22 General equilibrium models
104
5A3 Global level modelling
107
5A32 General equilibrium models
108
Implementing the Conceptual Framework
110
61 Trade reform
111
62 Enterprises
112
621 Production
116
622 Employment and wages
119
63 The distribution network
123
64 Government revenue and expenditure
128
65 Households
129
66 The domain of trade
133
Trade Reform and AntiPoverty Policy
137
71 The impact of a poverty perspective on trade reform
138
712 Sequencing
140
713 Gradualism versus bigbang reform
141
72 Antipoverty programmes as complementary policies to trade reform
143
73 The impact of trade reform on antipoverty programmes
145
74 Trade reform and shortterm adjustment
146
741 How long does unemployment last?
147
75 Transitory and chronic poverty
148
76 Should the losers from trade reform be compensated?
150
761 Experience with compensation schemes in developed countries
152
77 Trade reform and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
153
78 Do international agreements constrain antipoverty programmes?
156
782 Inconsistent international commitments and antipoverty policy
158
79 Is reform optional?
159
THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC LIBERALIZATIONS
163
Introduction to Part 2
165
82 Special and differential treatment
167
83 The chapter format of Part 2
169
Agricultural Trade Reform
171
91 Background
172
92 The economics of agricultural protection
174
922 Developing countries
175
93 The liberalization agenda in agriculture
176
931 The multilateral agenda
177
932 Developing countries
180
933 The cost of agricultural trade restrictions
181
934 The development box and food security
182
935 Sanitary and phytosanitary standards
183
936 Agricultural liberalization by other means
184
937 Regional trading arrangements
185
941 The pattern of net consumption
186
942 The impact of comparative advantage social structures and policy
187
marketing arrangements
188
944 Markets for inputs
190
946 Can the poor respond?
191
95 The effects of liberalizing developing countries trade policies on poverty
193
952 National food security
194
953 Household food security
195
954 Reducing the antiagriculture bias in developing countries
196
making developing country agricultural markets contestable
197
1022 The benefits of protecting IPRs
211
1023 How much protection should be given to intellectual property?
212
1024 Quantifying the costs and benefits of stronger IPRs
214
1025 Public versus private knowledge
215
1031 The TRIPs Agreement
216
1033 To renegotiate or not?
218
1034 Extending protection to developing country interests
219
1035 Weakening the scope of IPR protection
220
104 TRIPs and poverty
223
1043 Fiscal dimensions
225
105 Conclusion
226
Trade in Services
229
111 Background
230
1112 Barriers to trade in services
231
112 The economics of services liberalization
233
1122 Arguments against liberalization
234
1123 The importance of competition and regulation
235
1131 The GATS
236
1132 Service negotiations in future
237
1133 Special circumstances not special and differential treatment
240
1141 The movement of natural persons
242
1142 Financial services
246
1143 Tourism
248
115 Conclusion
250
Liberalizing Manufacturing Trade
253
122 The economics of trade restrictions on manufacturing
256
1221 Tariffs
257
1222 The MultiFibre Arrangement MFA
259
123 Progress on liberalizing trade in manufactures
260
1232 The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing ATC
262
multilateral liberalization and poor countries
263
domestic liberalization and poor groups
265
1252 Jobs
266
1253 Government revenue
269
1254 Growth
270
1255 Ensuring that liberalization of trade in manufactures is propoor
271
126 Conclusion
273
Export and Domestic Subsidies
275
132 The economics of subsidies
277
1322 Factor markets
278
1323 Domestic distortions
279
1324 Technology and growth
280
1326 Shocks and vulnerability
282
133 Subsidies in the Uruguay Round
283
1332 Actionable subsidies
284
135 Subsidies and poverty
285
1351 Direct effects
286
1352 Systemic effects
288
1354 Administering antisubsidy policies
289
Antidumping
292
142 The economics of antidumping
293
143 Antidumping today
297
1432 Prospects for limiting antidumping
298
144 Antidumping and poverty
299
1442 Developing countries antidumping actions
300
145 Conclusion
301
Labour Standards
303
1511 Why is this an issue now?
304
152 The economics and politics of linking labour standards and trade
306
1522 Race to the bottom
307
1524 Legitimacy
309
153 Existing approaches to labour standards
310
154 Current negotiating positions on trade and labour standards
311
155 Labour standards and poverty
312
1552 The link between labour standards and trade
313
1554 Domestic policy is the key
314
156 Conclusion
317
Environmental Standards
319
161 Background
320
162 The economics of trade and environmental standards
321
1622 The polluter pays principle
323
1624 Moral arguments
324
1626 Legitimacy
325
1628 International spillovers
326
165 The current status of negotiations
328
166 Environmental standards trade and poverty
330
1662 Trade policy and the environment
331
1663 Alternatives to trade sanctions
333
167 Conclusion
334
Competition Policy
336
1711 Why is this an issue now?
337
172 The tradeoffs in competition policy
339
173 Progress on multilateral approaches to competition policies
342
1732 EU and US differences
344
1733 Developing countries
346
174 Competition policy and poverty
347
1743 Industrial policy
349
1744 Institutions
350
175 Conclusion
351
Investment and Trade Related Investment Measures TRIMs
354
182 The economics of TRIMs
356
1821 TRIMs as correctives to market failures
357
183 The current status of TRIMs
359
1832 Unilateral policy
360
1833 An investment agreement?
361
184 TRIMs and poverty
362
185 Conclusion
363
Glossary
365
Bibliography
381
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

About the author (2001)

Neil McCulloch is a Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies. His research focuses on the impact of public policy on poverty in developing countries. Trained as an engineer and an economist, he has worked for government, consultancy, and N

Bibliographic information