Race, Resistance, and the Boy Scout Movement in British Colonial Africa
Conceived by General Sir Robert Baden-Powell as a way to reduce class tensions in Edwardian Britain, scouting evolved into an international youth movement. It offered a vision of romantic outdoor life as a cure for disruption caused by industrialization and urbanization. Scouting's global spread was due to its success in attaching itself to institutions of authority. As a result, scouting has become embroiled in controversies in the civil rights struggle in the American South, in nationalist resistance movements in India, and in the contemporary American debate over gay rights.
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3 Pathfinding in Southern Africa 190845
4 Scouting and the School in East Africa 191045
5 Scouting and Independency in East Africa 194664
6 Scouting and Apartheid in Southern Africa 194580
7 Independence and After