Examines the evolution of life on a constantly changing planet and the results of that process. Explores new insights from plate tectonics; from deep ocean life investigations; from island biogeography; from growing knowledge about past geography, climates and ecology; and from development in evolutionary theory will interest `outdoor' biologists of all kinds, ecologists, students of evolution, oceanographers, paleontologists, and geographers. With numerous maps and diagrams and a bibliography of over 300 references.
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3 Biogeographic Subdivision of a Littoral Biota
Biogeography and Continental Drift
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absences adapted Africa allopatric speciation ancestors angiosperms animals Antarctica apomorphous Arctic Australia Axelrod barrier benthos Beringia biogeographic biotas biotic birds cause changes Chapter cladists classification climate competition consider continental drift continents demes depth diploid discussed disjunct distribution diversity ecological endemic equilibrium evolution evolutionary evolved example extinction families fauna flora forest fossil gene genera genus geographic ranges glaciation Gondwana gradient groups habitats hypothesis ice sheets immigrants islands jump dispersal land bridge latitudes latitudinal Laurasia littoral Lystrosaurus mainland mammals marine marsupials migration Miocene North America North Atlantic northern number of species observed occur ocean organisms Pacific pairs Pangaea partitioning patterns phenotype phyletic gradualism plankton plants Pleistocene plesiomorph polyploids populations possible present probably regions result route sampling separated shore shown in Figure South southern speciation species-population subranges surface taxa taxon taxonomic temperature terrestrial theory tion tropical tundra vegetation water masses zonation zone