A formal evaluation of students listening abilities is crucial in order that language teacher's can meet the pedagogical needs of their students. While there has been a considerable body of work done on assessing the listening abilities of native speakers, the issues surrounding the assessment of second language learners listening abilities are still emerging. This book outlines in an accessible manner the theory and research relating to the listening ability of foreign language learners. It provides language teachers with guidelines to design and develop suitable listening tasks for their students.
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ability to recognise accent authenticity background knowledge Certiﬁcate Chapter characteristics cloze cognitive communicative testing complex comprehension questions construct deﬁnition construct validity construct-irrelevant context correct developed difﬁcult discrete-point easier than texts English example ﬁll ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁve idea units important inferences inﬂuence integrative tests interaction interpretation intonation Language Testing lectures linguistic listening ability listening comprehension listening construct listening tests meaning mental models metacognitive strategies microphone modiﬁcation multiple-choice noise number of different operationalise options passage pauses performance phonological possible pragmatic problem procedural knowledge proﬁciency purpose recording require response score scripted second-language listening skills sociolinguistic sound speaker speech rate spoken language spoken texts statements stress sub-skills sufﬁcient talk target-language use situation target-language use tasks tend test items test speciﬁcations test tasks test-developers Test-takers hear Test-takers listen testing listening tests of listening things tion TOEFL TOEIC topic transactional language types understanding usually utterance vocabulary words