Popular Movements in Autocracies: Religion, Repression, and Indigenous Collective Action in Mexico
This book presents a new explanation of the rise, development, and demise of social movements and cycles of protest in autocracies; the conditions under which protest becomes rebellion; and the impact of protest and rebellion on democratization. Focusing on poor indigenous villages in Mexico's authoritarian regime, the book shows that the spread of U.S. Protestant missionaries and the competition for indigenous souls motivated the Catholic Church to become a major promoter of indigenous movements for land redistribution and indigenous rights. It also shows that the introduction of government-controlled multiparty elections and the spread of competition for indigenous votes led Leftist opposition parties to become major sponsors of indigenous protest and identities. The expansion of electoral competition in some regions eventually led opposition parties to institutionalize protest, but the withdrawal of civil rights and political liberties and the threat of regime reversion in others gave rise to radicalization. The book explains why the outbreak of local rebellions, the transformation of indigenous claims for land into demands for ethnic autonomy and self-determination, and the threat of a generalized social uprising motivated national elites to democratize. Drawing on an original dataset of indigenous collective action and on extensive fieldwork, the empirical analysis of the book combines quantitative evidence with case studies and life histories.
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agrarian Andrés Diaz associational networks authoritarian autocracies autonomy and self-determination became Bishop catechists Catholic clergy Catholic social networks Chapter Chiapas Chiapas’s Chilon CIOAC CIOAC leaders co-optation coalition COCEI collective action corporatist country’s cultural cycle of indigenous decentralized demands democracy democratization Diocese economic Ejido elections electoral autocracies electoral competition ethnic claims EZLN ﬁndings ﬁrst governors identities independent indig indigenous communities indigenous mobilization indigenous municipalities indigenous rights inﬂuential institutional interviews Juchitan Lacandon land redistribution land tenure Latin America leaders and activists leftist leftist parties levels liberalization of land major promoters Margaritas mestizo Mexican Mexico City Mexico’s Mexico’s cycle Model neoliberal Oaxaca ofﬁce ofthe opposition parties organizations peasant indigenous political politicization radical rebel groups rebel recruitment rebellion religious competition revolutionary rise Ruiz rural indigenous movements rural indigenous protest secular shows signiﬁcant Simojovel social base social movements social protest state’s structures subnational tion Tojolabal transformation Tzeltal Tzotzil Zapatism Zapatista Zoque