The Forces of Nature: A Popular Introduction to the Study of Physical Phenomena

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Macmillan and Company, 1877 - Physics - 691 pages
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Contents

Cohesion of liquid molecules drops of mercury
61
Principle of the hydraulic press
62
The pressure exercised on one point of a liquid is transmitted equally in every direction
63
Pressure of a liquid on the bottom of the vessel which contains it
64
Haldats instrument
66
Pressure of a liquid on a horizontal stratum
67
Hydraulic tourniquet 6S 44 Hydrostatic paradox
69
Equilibrium of superposed liquids of different densities
70
Equality of height of the same liquid in communicating vessels
71
Communicating vessels Heights of two liquids of different densities
72
CHAPTER VII
73
Experimental demonstration of the principle of Archimedes
74
Principle of Archimedes Reaction of one immersed body on the liquid which contains it
75
Equilibrium of a body immersed in a liquid of the same density as its own
78
Density of solid bodies Method of the hydrostatic balance
79
Density of solid bodies Charles or Nicholsons areometer
80
Density of solid bodies Method of the specific gravity bottle
81
Specific gravity of liquids Fahrenheits areometer
82
CHAPTER VIII
84
Specific gravity of liquids Method of the specific gravity bottle 62
86
Elasticity and compressibility of gases
87
Pneumatic syringe
88
Torricellis experiment
90
Magdeburg hemispheres
91
Bursting a bladder by exhausting the air underneath it
92
Jet of water in vacuo
93
Normal or standard barometer
95
Cistern of Fortins barometer
96
Fortins barometer as arranged for travelling
97
GayLussacs barometer modified by Bunten
98
Dial or wheel barometer
99
Bourdons aneroid barometer
101
Principle of the ascent of liquids in pumpsSuction and force pumpsThe
102
Principle of the suctionpump
103
Forcepump
105
CHAPTER I
123
CHAPTER III
138
CHAPTER IV
145
CHAPTER V
163
Sonorous tubes Laws of the vibrations of open and closed tubes of different lengths
172
Longitudinal vibrations of rods
174
Vibrations of a plate
175
Nodal lines of vibrating square plates according to Savart
176
Nodal lines of vibrating circular or polygonal plates according to Chladni and Savart
177
CHAPTER VI
178
Propagation of the sonorous vibrations in a cylindrical and unlimited gaseous column
179
Propagation of a sonorous wave through an unlimited medium
181
Experiment proving the coexistence of waves Propagation and reflec tion of liquid waves on the surface of a bath of mercury
183
Distinction between noises and musical soundsDefinition of the gamut intervals
185
CHAPTER VIII
193
A tuningfork mounted on a soundingbox
194
Optical study of vibratory movements
196
Optical curves representing the rectangular vibrations of two tuning forks in unison
197
Open tube with manomitric flames
199
Manometric flames Fundamental note and the octave above the fundamental note
200
Apparatus for the comparison of the vibratory movements of two sonorous tubes
201
Manometric flames simultaneously given by two tubes at the octave
202
CHAPTER IX
204
Helmholtzs resonance globe
205
Koenigs apparatus for analysing clangtints
206
Organ of hearing in man anatomical description of the earThe external ear
208
The human ear section of the interior tympanum chain of small bones Internal ear labyrinth
210
Details of the auditory ossicles
211
Auditory apparatus of fishes ear of the Ray
212
The human voice interior view of the larynx Glottis vocal chords
213
CHAPTER I
219
Propagation of light in a right line
224
Cone of shadow of an opaque body Completed shadow
225
Cones of umbra and penumbra
226
Silhouettes of perforated cards effect of the umbra and penumbra
227
Inverted image of a candle
229
Dark chamber Reversed image of a landscape
230
Measure of the velocity of light by the eclipses of Jupiters satellites
232
Fizeaus instrument for the direct measure of the velocity of light
235
Measure of the velocity of light by M Fizcau
236
CHAPTER III
238
Law of tho square of distances
241
1G2 Rumfords photometer
243
Bouguors photometer
244
Phenomena of reflection of lightLight reflected by mirrors diffused light
247
Phenomena of reflection
249
Experimental study of the laws of the reflection of light
251
Reflection from a plane mirror Form and position of the images
252
Reflection from a plane mirror Field of the mirror
253
Reflections from two plane parallel mirrors Multiple images
254
Images on two mirrors inclined at riyht angles to each other
255
Concave mirror Real and inverted image of objects
264
Upright virtual imago in convex spherical mirror
265
Convex mirror Erect and virtual image
266
Caustic by reflection
267
Reflection on conical mirrors Anamorphosis
268
Light reflected very obliquely
269
Irregular reflection or scattering of light on the surface of an unpolished body
270
The Ghost produced by reflection
271
Arrangement of the unsilvered glass and the position of the Ghost
273
CHAPTER V
275
Refraction of light Apparent elevation of the bottoms of vessels
276
Experimental demonstration of the laws of refraction
278
Law of sines
279
Explanation of the bent stick
280
Total reflection Limiting angle
281
Phenomenon of total reflection
282
Phenomenon of total reflection in the shutter of a camera obscura
283
Atmospheric refraction The effect on the rising and setting of stars
284
CHAPTER VI
286
215 Oblique view parallel faces 206 Path of a luminous pencil
287
Multiple images produced by refraction in plates with parallel faces
288
Path of the rays which give place to the multiple images of plates with parallel faces
293
CHAPTER VII
306
CHAPTER VIII
317
CHAPTER IX
323
CHAPTER XII
348
CHAPTER XIII
357
CHAPTER XIV
367
CHAPTER XV
376
Equal intensity of the ordinary and extraordinary images in a doubly refracting
385
CHAPTER XVII
397
CHAPTER XVIII
406
CHAPTER I
415
Centigrade thermometers with their graduated scales
424
Thermometrical scales
425
Air thermometers of Galileo and Cornelius Drebbel
427
Differential thermometers of Leslie and Rumford
428
Unequal expansion of two different metals for the same elevation of temperature
429
Metallic dial thermometer
430
CHAPTER II
432
Room of the Conservatoire des Arts ct Metiers Walls rectified by force of contraction
434
Dutch tears
435
Measure of the linear expansion of a solid by the method of Lavoisier and Laplaco
436
Laplace and Lavoisiers instrument for the measure of linear expansion
437
Experiment proving the contraction of water from 0 to 4
441
CHANGES IN THE STATE OF BODIES
443
Effects of expansion produced by the freezing of water
447
Ebullition in open air
449
Papins digester
450
Ebullition of water at a temperature lower than 100
451
Spontaneous evaporation of a liquid in the barometric vacuum First law of Dalton
452
Invariability of the maximum tension of the same vapour nt the same temperature Daltons second law
453
Inequalities of the maximum tensions of different vapours at the same temperature Daltons third law
454
CHAPTER IV
457
Radiation of obscure heat in vacuo
459
Reflection of heat experiments with parabolic conjugate mirrors
460
Burning mirror
462
Refraction of heat
463
Echelon lens
464
Measure of the emissive powers of bodies Experiment with Leslies cube
466
Elements of the thermoelectric pile
468
Thermoelectric pile for the study of the phenomena of heat
469
Apparatus used by Melloni to measure the reflecting powers of bodies
470
Mellonis apparatus for measuring the diathennanous power of bodies
474
Incandescent spiral of platinum
475
Intensity of radiant heat Law of the squares of the distances
476
CHAPTER V
477
Unequal conductivities of copper and iron
478
Experiment on the conductivity of iron compared with that of bismuth
480
Property of metallic gauze obstacle which it opposes to the propagation of heat
482
CHAPTER VI
484
Measure of the specific heat of bodies Simple ice calorimeter
490
SOURCES OF HEAT
492
What we understand by the mechanical equivalent of heatJoules experiments
504
MA GNETISM
511
CHAPTER L
531
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
545
CHAPTER III
567
CHAPTER IV
585
Action of a current on the magnetic needle Oersted and AmpereSchweiggers
604
CHAPTER VI
620
Sparks obtained by static electrical discharges luminous tuftsLight in rarefied
631
Optical meteors mir1ge rainbowTension of aqueous vapour in the atmosphere
645
Discovery of Oxyuen in tHe Son by Puotoorapiiy and a new THeory
673
Index Page
685

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Page 677 - But in fact the substances hitherto investigated in the sun are really metallic vapors, hydrogen probably coming under that rule. The non-metals obviously may behave differently. It is easy to speculate on the causes of such behavior, and it may be suggested that the reason of the non-appearance of a dark line may be that the intensity of the light from a great thickness of ignited oxygen overpowers the effect of the photosphere...
Page iii - GUILLEMIN. Translated from the French by MRS. NORMAN LOCKYER ; and Edited, with Additions and Notes, by J. NORMAN LOCKYER, FRS Illustrated by II Coloured Plates and 455 Woodcuts.
Page 354 - You find that fewer soldiers now pass you, and that the interval between each is longer. Now suppose yourself at rest, and suppose the barrack to have a motion now towards you, now from you. In the first case the men will be paid out, so to speak, more rapidly. The motion of the barrack-gate towards you will plant each soldier nearer the preceding one than he would have been if the barrack had remained at rest. The soldiers will really be nearer together. In the second case, it is obvious that the...
Page 488 - The vast influence which the ocean must exert, as a moderator of climate, here suggests itself. The heat of summer is stored up in the ocean, and slowly given out during the winter. This is one cause of the absence of extremes in an island climate.
Page 676 - To account for this wonderful discovery coming so late, it is urged that — The bright lines of oxygen in the spectrum of the solar disc have not been hitherto perceived, probably from the fact that in eye-observation bright lines on a less bright background do not make the impression on the mind that dark lines do. When attention is called to their presence they are readily enough seen, even without the aid of a reference spectrum. The photograph, however, brings them into a greater prominence.
Page 677 - Huggins showed that Hydrogen could give bright lines on a background of spectrum analogous to that of the Sun. However all that may be, I have no doubt of the existence of substances other than Oxygen in the Sun which are only indicated by bright lines. Attention may be called to the bright bands near G, from wave lengths 4307 to 4337, which are only partly accounted for by Oxygen.
Page 334 - ... spectroscope appear much brighter than the corresponding parts of the spectrum of the more lustrous solid body. Now here comes a very important point : supposing the continuous spectrum of a solid or liquid to be mixed with the discontinuous spectrum of a gas, we can, by increasing the number of prisms in a spectroscope, dilute the continuous spectrum of the solid or liquid body very much indeed, and the dispersion will not seemingly reduce the brilliancy of the lines given out by the gas ; as...
Page 354 - You stand still, and take out your watch, and find that so many pass you in a second or minute, and that the number of soldiers, as well as the interval between them, is always the same. You now move slowly towards the barrack, still noting what happens. You find that more soldiers pass you than before in the same time, and, reckoned in time, the interval between each soldier is less. You now move still slowly from the barrack, ie with the soldiers.
Page 355 - I have here a globe, which we will take as representing the sun. Fix your attention on the centre of this globe ; * it is evident that an uprush or a downrush is necessary to cause any alteration of wave-length. A cyclone or lateral movement of any kind is powerless ; there will be no motion to or from the eye, but only at right angles to the line of sight.

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