Basic Helicopter Handbook
Technical manual for applicants who are preparing for their private, commercial, or flight instructor pilot certificates with a helicopter rating. Also could be aid in training students. Contains detailed coverage of helicopter aerodynamics, performance, and flight performance. Includes items such as weather, navigation, radio navigation, and communications. 81 charts and tables.
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aft cyclic airfoil amount angle of attack angle of descent applied approach autorotation blade pitch carburetor carburetor icing chart collective pitch COMMON ERRORS copter crosswind cyclic control cyclic pitch cyclic stick decrease downwind drag empty weight engine failure feet Figure flapping force forward flight fuel fuselage gross weight ground effect ground track groundspeed heli helicopter flight manual helicopter performance high density altitude horizontal hovering ceiling hovering flight Hughes Tool Company increase landing left pedal lift force load maintain heading maintain proper RPM maneuver manifold pressure maximum movement nose particular helicopter pedal pressure pilot pitch angle pitch horns position pounds rate of climb rate of descent rearward relative wind result retreating blade right pedal rotor disc rotor mast rotor RPM rotor system sideward skid speed surface tail rotor takeoff temperature throttle thrust tilt tion tip-path plane torque torque effect touchdown translational lift turn velocity vertical vibrations
Page 7 - This resultant lift-thrust force can be resolved into two components — lift acting vertically upward and thrust acting horizontally in the direction of flight. In addition to lift and thrust, there are weight, the downward acting force, and drag, the rearward acting or retarding force of inertia and wind resistance (fig. 11). In straight-and-level unaccelerated forward flight, lift equals weight and thrust equals drag (straight-and-level flight is flight with a constant heading and at a constant...
Page 108 - Small aircraft" means aircraft of 12,500 pounds or less, maximum certificated takeoff weight. "Standard atmosphere" means atmosphere in which: (1) The air is a dry perfect gas; (2) The temperature at sea level is 59 degrees Fahrenheit; (3) The pressure at sea level is 29.92 inches Hg.; (4) The temperature gradient from sea level to the altitude at which the temperature is —69.7 degrees Fahrenheit is —0.003566 Fahrenheit per foot and zero above that altitude; and (5) The density...
Page 38 - ... and to permit marking the Instruments as required by §§4b.734 through 4b.736. (c) Weight and loading distribution. The airplane weights and center of gravity limits required by §§4b.l01 and 4b.l02 shall be Included, together with the Items of equipment on which the empty weight Is based. Where the variety of possible loading conditions warrants. Instructions shall be included to facilitate observance of the limitations. (d) Flight load acceleration limits. The positive maneuvering limit load...
Page 89 - A running takeoff (fig. 75) is used when conditions of load and/or density altitude prevent a sustained hover at normal hovering altitude. It is often referred to as a high-altitude takeoff. With insufficient power to hover, at least momentarily or at a very low altitude, a running takeoff is not advisable. No takeoff should be attempted if the helicopter cannot be...
Page 25 - ... pitch angle the tail rotor will have; and somewhere in between, the tail rotor will have a zero pitch angle. As the left pedal is moved forward of the neutral position, the positive pitch angle of the tail rotor increases until it becomes maximum with full forward displacement of the left pedal. With a negative pitch angle, the tail rotor thrust is working in the same direction as torque reaction of the main rotor. With a small positive pitch angle, the tail rotor does not produce sufficient...
Page 40 - The steady rates of climb and hovering ceilings together with the corresponding air speeds and other pertinent Information, including the calculated effect of altitude and temperature. (See §§6.112 and 6.113.) (b) Maximum wind allowable for safe operation near the ground. (See §6.121 (d).) (c) Sufficient information to outline the limiting heights and corresponding speeds for safe landing after power failure.
Page 11 - ... and the advancing blade angle of attack is decreased resulting in a tipping forward of the tip-path plane, since maximum deflection takes place 90° later when the blades are at the rear and front respectively.
Page 11 - In a three-bladed rotor, the movement of the cyclic pitch control changes the angle of attack of each blade an appropriate amount so that the end result is the same — a tipping forward of the tip-path plane when the maximum change in angle of attack is made as each blade passes the same points at which the maximum increase and decrease are made in the illustration (fig.