The satire in this, one of the best known of all Aristophanes' comedies, is directed against the new schools of philosophy, or perhaps we should rather say dialectic, which had lately been introduced, mostly from abroad, at Athens. The doctrines held up to ridicule are those of the 'Sophists'—such men as Thrasymachus from Chalcedon in Bithynia, Gorgias from Leontini in Sicily, Protagoras from Abdera in Thrace, and other foreign scholars and rhetoricians who had flocked to Athens as the intellectual centre of the Hellenic world.—From the introduction to ‘The Clouds’ by Aristophanes.
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Aeschylus Alcmaeonidae AMYNIAS Apollo arguments Aristophanes Athamas Athenian Athens Attica Bacchus baths beat beaten blows bring Buphonia called celestial Chaerephon chariot chastise CHORUS Cleon Cleonymus clever cloak Clouds cocks Coesyra creditors dactyls dare dear debauchee debts deposits DISCIPLE dithyrambic divine drivel earth Euripides father fellow finger fool give gnat gods Greek gymnasia heaven Heracles horses Hyperbolus King kneading-trough Lacedaemon law-suits little Socrates look Low scum masculine Megacles moon mortal never obey obolus octaeteris Panathenaea papapappax pappax Parabasis PASIAS Peleus Pericles PHIDIPPIDES Phoebus piece pigeon pigeonnette poet poor Posidon pray rain reasoning sacred scholiast slaves sleep SOCRATES Sophists speak spectators STREPSIADES stupid summon swear talents teach tell things thou thunder Thurium to-day trough Twas twelve minae UNJUST DISCOURSE venerable goddesses water-cress Whirlwind wisdom wish witnesses words wretched young Zeus