Thermodynamics

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McGraw-Hill, 1921 - Thermodynamics - 266 pages
 

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Contents

Entropy
17
The TemperatureEntropy Diagram
18
The Zero of Heat and Entropy
21
Structure of the Temperature Chart
23
Values and Representation of Heat Quantities
27
Efficiency
29
The Expression for Entropy
30
The Unit of Entropy
31
The Specific Heat of Superheated Steam
32
The Structure of the Heat Chart
33
The Working Mollier Diagram
34
THE EFFECTS OF HEATHOW STEAM DOES WORK 29 Heat and Work
36
Heat Effects During Heating of Liquid
37
Heat Effects During Vaporization
38
Summary of Heat Effects
39
The Restoration Process and Cyclic Operation
41
Possibilities of Useful Work from the Intrinsic Energy
42
How Heat Effects are Utilized in a Steam Turbine
44
WHAT MAXIMUM PORTION OF THE STEAM SUPPLIED COULD AN IDEAL HEAT UTILIZER CONVERT INTO WORK 39 Actual Performan...
47
What Efficiency Could an Ideal Steam Engine or Turbine Develop
48
The Rankine Cycle
49
The Rankine Cycle on the HeatEntropy Diagram
50
Thermal Efficiency of Rankine Cycle
52
The Rejected Heat
53
Heat Content External Work and Intrinsic Energy
54
AVAILABLE UNAVAILABLE UTILIZED AND WASTE ENERGYLOSSES 51 Available and Unavailable Energy
58
What Determines the Amount of Available and Unavailable Energy?
59
Ultimate Disposition of Waste Energy
60
How May Heat Pass from the Available to the Unavailable State?
62
Throttling Destroys Availability of Energy
64
Throttling Steam Friction Wire Drawing Pressure Reducing
65
How Throttling Destroys Availability of Energy
66
Representation of Throttling Process
67
Losses in a Steam Turbine
68
Losses in a Reciprocating Engine
69
Why Initial Condensation and Reevaporation Results in a Loss of Availability of Energy
70
VAPOR REFRIGERATION 65 The Ammonia Compression Machine
75
The Properties of Ammonia
76
Representation of Cycle on the TemperatureEntropy Plane
77
Heat Quantities
78
Refrigerating Capacity
79
Pressures in the System
80
Other Working Substances for Refrigerating Machines
81
The Ammonia Absorption Machine
82
THE COMPRESSION AND EXPANSION OF PERMANENT GASES CONDITIONAL RELATIONS 74 A Compressed Air System
86
Distinction between a Permanent Gas and a Vapor
87
The Compression of Air
88
Adiabatic Compression
89
Relation among the Properties of Gases Boyles and Charles Laws 00
90
Graphical Representation of Charles Law Absolute Zero of Temperature
91
The Value of R
93
The Equation of the Adiabatic
94
Constant Volume and Constant Pressure Lines on the TE Plane
96
Values of Cp c k R and V for Some Gases
97
Derivation of the Equation of the Adiabatic PVt C
98
Final Specific Volume after Adiabatic Compression
99
Isothermal Compression
100
Actual Compression Line for an Air Compressor
102
Determination of the Value of n from an Actual Compression Line
103
THE COMPRESSION AND EXPANSION OF PERMANENT GASES ENERGY RELATIONS 96 The General Energy Equation
105
Deviations from Joules Law
107
Constant Volume Change
108
Constant Pressure Change
109
Constant Entropy Change Adiabatic
111
Polytropic Change
112
Specific Heat Polytropic Change
114
Energy Quantities of a Cycle
115
Compression
116
Delivery of the Compressed Air
117
The Net Work of the Cycle
118
Expressions for Net Work
119
Water Jacketing of Air Compressors
120
Interstage Cooling of Air Compressors
122
Clearance in Air Compressors
124
Example
142
MIXTURES OF GASEOUS SUBSTANCES 125 Occurrence of Gaseous Mixtures in Engineering Work
145
Densities and Molecular Weights 116
146
Determination of R for Mixtures
147
The Properties of Common Gases
148
Specific Heat of Mixtures
149
Mixture of Air and Water Vapor
152
Dew Point
153
Relative Humidity
154
Determination of Weight of Steam and Air in a Cubic Foot of the Mixture
155
Specific Heat of Gas and Vapor Mixture
157
Effect of Compression upon Humidity Adiabatic Compression
158
THE AIR HEAT ENGINE 140 The Internal Combustion Engine is an Air Engine
161
The Otto Cycle
162
PV and TE Diagrams of the Otto Cycle
163
Heat Quantities of the Otto Cycle
166
Efficiency of the Otto Cycle
168
The Diesel Cycle
170
The Brayton Engine
171
The Lenoir Cycle
173
The Stirling Hot Air Engine
174
The Cycle of the Stirling Engine
175
The Ericsson Hot Air Engine
176
Cycle of the Ericsson Engine
177
THE ENERGY LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 152 The Definition of Thermodynamics
180
Insufficiency of the First Law of Thermodynamics
181
The Thought Underlying the Second Law of Thermodynamics
182
Derivation of the Expressions and
183
Direct Transfer of Heat from a Hot Body to a Cold One
184
Adiabatic Expansion Throttling
185
Mechanical Illustrations of Reversibility and Irreversibility
186
An Irreversible Operation Means Loss of Available Energy
187
The Carnot Cycle
189
The Carnot Cycle Represents the Highest Possible Efficiency
190
Other Reversible Cycles
192
THE DECREASE OF AVAILABLE ENERGY ART PAGE 167 Available Energy is Continually Decreasing
194
The Heat of Combustion Zero Air Excess
195
The Heat of Combustion 50 per cent Air Excess
197
The Heat in the Steam
198
Transformation of Heat into Work
199
The Heat in the Condenser Cooling Water
200
Entropy is Continually Increasing
202
CHAPTER XVITHE FLOW OF FLUIDS 177 Working Mediain Motion
205
The Equation of the Continuity of Mass
206
Pressure in the Throat of a Nozzle Example Air Nozzle
208
Pressure in the Throat of a Steam Nozzle
211
Derivation of the Relation V1
212
Significance of the Throat Pressure Relation
215
Contour of Nozzle Passage as Affected by the Back Pressure
216
The Straight Nozzle
218
Usual Shape of Nozzle
219
Discharge of Steam through Nozzles Grashofs and Napiers Equations
222
Discharge Formulas Summarized
223
Influence of Back Pressure upon Rate of Discharge
224
Nozzle Calculations
227
Flow through Orifices
229
KINETIC ENGINES THE STEAM TURBINE AND THE INJECTOR 194 Kinetic vs Direct Pressure Engines
231
Types of Turbines
232
Classes of Impulse Turbines
233
Heat Changes in a Multiple Pressure Stage Turbine
235
The Reaction Turbine
239
The Steam Injector
240
Impact
242
Efficiency of the Injector
243
THE KINETIC THEORY OF HEAT AND MISCELLANEOUS ART PAGE 203 The Foundations of Thermodynamics
246
Theories of Heat
248
Combustion
251
Vapors and Specific Heat
252
Perfect Gas
253
The Equation of an Imperfect Gas
255
The JouleThomson Effect
256
Critical Point of Gases
257
The Liquefaction of Gases
258
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Page 180 - The First Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics states that the change in internal energy is equal to the difference between the energy supplied to the system as heat and the energy removed from the system as work performed on the surroundings...
Page 107 - Law. When a perfect gas expands without doing external work and without taking in or giving out any heat, its temperature remains unchanged and there is no change in its internal energy.
Page 180 - British thermal unit (Btu) = l/180partof the heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 32 F.
Page ii - Electric Railway Journal Electrical \Xforld v Engineering News-Record American Machinist v Ingenierfa Internacional Engineering 8 Mining Journal ^ Power Chemical 8 Metallurgical Engineering Electrical Merchandising H g o .s a ELECTKOLITIC DEPOSITION AND HIDBOMETALLUBGY OF ZINC BY OLIVER C.
Page 257 - ... cases, other working mediums or refrigerants than water must be chosen, and thus it comes about that the temperature at which a substance will vaporize at a given pressure is of first importance. For any given substance in the form of vapor — that is, a fully expanded gas containing no moisture — there is a certain temperature above which it is impossible to liquefy the substance no matter how great the pressure. This is the critical temperature. The pressure that will cause liquefaction...
Page xvii - Thermodynamics. — The branch of the theory of heat, that treats of the relations between heat and mechanical work, especially as acting in a heat engine ; as, the steam engine.
Page 94 - In heat transfer problems in soil and rock engineering, the concept of volumetric heat capacity cv of a substance is defined as the amount of heat necessary to change the temperature of a unit of the substance by one degree.
Page 90 - It states that: at constant temperature, the volume of a given weight of gas is inversely proportional to the absolute pressure.
Page 90 - If the pressure remains constant, the volume of a gas varies directly as the absolute temperature.
Page 171 - The advantage of the diesel engine is that it is capable of using the cheaper grades of low-volatile oils left as residues from the distillation of crude petroleum. Also the thermal efficiency of the diesel cycle is higher than that of the otto cycle, because of the greater ratios of expansion and compression. Figure 2-11 shows a section through the power cylinder of a Nordberg two-stroke scavenging diesel engine for stationary service.

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