Diagnosis and Assessment in Autism

Front Cover
Eric Schopler, Gary B. Mesibov
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 30, 1988 - Medical - 327 pages
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Division TEACCH, located in the School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, was one of the first programs in the country to understand that autism was an organic rather than a biologic condition. We were also one of the earliest programs to recognize the enormous variability in characteristics and behaviors of children described as autistic. For these reasons, the processes of diagnosis and assessment have always been important and central to our program. We are therefore extremely pleased to have a volume representing the most current thinking of the field's leaders in these important areas. As with the preceding books in our series, Current Issues in Autism, this volume is based on one of the annual TEACCH conferences held in Chapel Hill each May. The books are not simply published proceedings of the conference papers, however. Rather, conference participants are asked to develop a full chapter around their presentations. Other international experts whose work is beyond the scope of the conference, but related to the major theme, are asked to contribute chapters as well. These volumes are designed to provide the most current knowledge in research and professional practice available on the most important issues defining and clarifying autism.
 

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Contents

Introduction to Diagnosis and Assessment of Autism
3
MISUSE OF FORMAL DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION
4
FORMAL AND INFORMAL DIAGNOSIS AND ASSESSMENT
6
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
10
DIAGNOSTIC ISSUES
11
SPECIAL ISSUES
12
REFERENCES
13
Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders Concepts and Diagnostic Issues
15
CONCLUSIONS
160
Intellectual and Developmental Assessment of Autistic Children from Preschool to Schoolage Clinical Implications of Two Followup Studies
167
DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES
168
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AUTISTIC AND NONAUTISTIC CHILDREN
170
EFFECT OF AGE OF ASSESSMENT ON PREDICTABILITY AND STABILITY OF IQ IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN
171
RELATIONSHIP OF AGE AND DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL TO PREDICTABILITY AND STABILITY OF IQ
172
ROLE OF CHANGE IN LANGUAGE STATUS IN CHANGES IN IQ
173
PREDICTION OF CHANGE IN LANGUAGE STATUS BY IQ RANGE
175

DISTINCTIVENESS AND VALIDITY OF THE AUTISM SYNDROME
16
DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR AUTISM
18
NATURE OF THE BASIC DEFICIT
20
RATING INSTRUMENTS
23
BOUNDARIES OF AUTISM
24
ETIOLOGIC HETEROGENEITY WITHIN AUTISM SYNDROMES
28
CONCLUSIONS
30
Public Policy and Its Impact on Children with Autism
37
POLICY INFLUENCES ON THE PROFESSIONAL
40
FUTURE POLICY NEEDS
45
THE NEED FOR POLICY ADVOCACY
47
Diagnostic Classification for the Clinician
49
WHY CLASSIFY?
50
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD CLASSIFICATION
51
HOW TO ACHIEVE A GOOD DIAGNOSIS
54
CLASSIFICATION OF CLASSIFICATIONS
55
AN OVERVIEW
57
REFERENCES
58
Whats in a Name?
59
THE PARENTS ANSWER ITS NOT YOU
60
THE CHILDS RELIEF ITS NOT ME
64
THE PROFESSIONALS TOOL NOW I CAN GET STARTED
66
Diagnostic Issues
69
Classification and Diagnosis of Childhood Autism
71
CLASSIFICATION
73
PHENOMENOLOGIC ISSUES AND CLASSIFICATION
77
ALTERNATIVE DIAGNOSTIC APPROACHES
81
CONSENSUS AND CONTROVERSY
84
SUMMARY
85
REFERENCES
86
The Continuum of Autistic Characteristics
91
COMPONENTS OF THE AUTISTIC CONTINUUM
92
PATTERNS OF IMPAIRMENTS AND SKILLS
98
RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
101
HOW SPECIFIC ARE THE NAMED SYNDROMES?
102
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
104
FUTURE RESEARCH
106
REFERENCES
107
Multiaxial Diagnostic Approaches
111
TYPES OF CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
113
THE DSMIII MULTIAXIAL DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM
116
SUMMARY
121
REFERENCES
122
Psychometric Instruments Available for the Assessment of Autistic Children
123
DIAGNOSIS VERSUS INTERVENTION PLANNING
129
THE USE OF STANDARDIZED TESTS
132
REFERENCES
134
General Assessment Issues
137
Behavioral Assessment of Autism
139
CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADULTS WITH AUTISM
140
ADVANTAGES OF BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT
142
FRAMEWORK FOR THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT OF AUTISM
143
BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT METHODS
147
SPECIAL ISSUES IN THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT OF AUTISM
157
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IQ SCORES ON THE SAME AND DIFFERENT TESTS FOR AUTISTIC CHILDREN
176
CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY
178
REFERENCES
180
Assessing the Quality of Living Environments
183
THE IMPORTANCE OF BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT
184
PROGRAMMING AN ENGAGING ENVIRONMENT
190
CONCLUSION
196
REFERENCES
197
Family Assessment in Autism
199
A FRAMEWORK FOR FAMILY ASSESSMENT
200
THE FAMILYCHILD INTERACTION
201
ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL FUNCTIONING
202
ASSESSMENT OF THE FAMILY SYSTEM
203
ASSESSING SOCIAL SUPPORT
206
SUMMARY
207
REFERENCES
208
Nutrition and Developmental Disabilities Clinical Assessment
211
RATIONALE
213
ISSUES
217
ISSUES
219
CONCLUSIONS
221
REFERENCES
222
Special Issues
225
Diagnosis and Assessment of Autistic Adolescents and Adults
227
DIAGNOSIS
228
ASSESSMENT
231
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
237
REFERENCES
238
Diagnosis and Subclassification of Autism Concepts and Instrument Development
239
NEW DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS
243
THE RECOGNITION AND EXPRESSION OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL CUES
254
CONCLUSIONS
256
REFERENCES
258
Assessment in the Classroom
261
WHY ASSESS
262
WHAT TO ASSESS
263
CHARACTERISTIC DEFICITS STRENGTHS AND INTERESTS
264
FAMILY NEEDS
265
CURRICULUM AREAS
266
EXAMPLES
268
CONCLUSION
269
REFERENCES
270
Diagnosis and Assessment of Preschool Children
271
DIAGNOSIS
273
ASSESSMENT
280
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
296
CONCLUSION
298
Assessment of LowFunctioning Children
303
PROBLEMS IN ASSESSMENT
304
APPROACHES TO SOLVING ASSESSMENT PROBLEMS
307
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE
317
Index
321
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