Trends in Pulsar Research
Pulsars are stars, a significant part of whose observed energy output is not continuous but is emitted as distinct flashes or pulses of electromagnetic radiation. Many pulsars also emit some radiation weakly and constantly, forming a background for the more intensive pulses. Three distinct classes of pulsars are presently known to astronomers, according to the source of energy that powers the radiation: Rotation-powered pulsars, where the loss of rotational energy of the star powers the radiation X-ray pulsars, where the gravitational potential energy of accreted matter is the energy source, and Magnetars, where the decay of an extremely strong magnetic field powers the radiation. Although all three classes of objects are neutron stars, their observable behaviour and the underlying physics are quite different. There are, however, connections. For example, X-ray pulsars are probably old rotation-powered pulsars that have already lost most of their energy, and have only become visible again after their binary companions expanded and began transferring matter on to the neutron star. The process of accretion can in turn transfer enough angular momentum to the neutron star to "recycle" it as a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar.
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The Origin of the Magnetic Field of Pulsars and the Gravitomagnetic Theory
AccretionDriven Millisecond XRay Pulsars
A Link between the Typical Radio Pulsars and Magnetars Magnetic Field Evolution through Pulsar Glitches
Radiation of the Gravitational and Electromagnetic Binary Pulsars
Neutrinospheres Resonant Neutrino Oscillations and Pulsar Kicks
accretion accretion-driven millisecond angular approximation assumed Astron Astrophys Astrophysics ATEL binary pulsars binary system Bp(gm braking index calculated Chakrabarty charge collapse components contribution core dependent gravitational potential derived detected dispersion measure electromagnetic electron distribution emission equation flux function Galactic plane Galaxy glitch gravitational radiation gravitomagnetic gravitons increasing Kaspi kHz QPOs Lett LMXBs luminosity Lyne magnetars magnetic dipole magnetic field Markwardt mass mechanism millisecond pulsar millisecond X-ray pulsars momentum neutrino oscillations neutrinosphere neutron gas neutron star nucleons observed obtained orbital period outburst parameters Pardy particles periastron photons Phys prediction pressure production of gravitons protoneutron star pulsar distances Pulsar Kicks QPOs r-mode radiative corrections radio pulsars radius relativistic resonance rotating Schwinger source theory spectral formula spin frequency spin-down rate star formation regions Straaten supernova remnants surface magnetic field tensor term transverse Vela velocity Wijnands