A Manual of Botany Adapted to the Productions of the Southern States: In Two Parts. Vegetable anatomy and physiology. Descriptive botany, arranged on the natural system, preceded by an analysis. i. ii
J.M. Cooper, 1847 - 500 pages
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1-celled 5-cleft 5-parted acuminate acute angled Anthers April—May base beneath bracts branches Calyx Capsule Carpels cells ciliate colored common compressed cordate coriaceous Corolla corymbs cuneate cylindrical Damp soils dioecious entire exterior feet Fertile florets filiform Flowers axillary Flowers in terminal Flowers solitary Fruit Genera Genus glabrous globose Glumes hairy Herbaceous plants hispid hypogynous imbricate inches involucre July—Aug June—July lanceolate leaflets Leaves alternate Leaves lanceolate Leaves linear Leaves opposite Leaves sessile Legume linear-lanceolate lobes margins May—June membranaceous Middle monoecious mucronate numerous oblong obovate obtuse oval Ovary ovate-lanceolate ovule Palea panicles pappus peduncles Perianth Petals petioles Pine barrens pinnate pistillate pubescent purple racemes radicle ray florets scabrous scales Seeds segments Sepals Sept.—Oct serrate serrulate sessile sheath shrub simple slender slightly spikes Stamens Stem erect Stem glabrous Sterile florets Stigma striate Style subulate summit terete ternate tissue tomentose toothed tree tube umbels unequal vegetable veins villous White Yellow
Page 120 - TJie above and similar facts constituted all the knowledge of the ancients on the subject of fertilization ; and it was not till the latter part of the seventeenth century that any thing like proper notions began to prevail.
Page 152 - Goeppert, he denies the truth of the statement generally made, that frost produces death in plants by bursting their vessels; and he assigns the effect to other causes. His more important conclusions are — 1. That no organ whatever is torn by the action of frost, except in very rare cases when the vesicles of cellular tissue give way, but that the vesicles of plants are separated from each other without laceration.
Page 141 - Who can paint Like nature ? Can imagination boast, Amid her gay creation, hues like these? What hand can mix them with that matehless skill, And lay them on sO delicately fine, And lose them in each other, as appears In every bud that blows ?
Page 152 - ... without laceration. 2. That neither the chlorophyll, the nucleus of cells, elementary fibre, amylaceous matter, raphides, nor the various crystals contained in vegetable tissue, undergo any alteration, unless perhaps in the case of amylaceous matter, which in some cases is converted into sugar, no doubt, in consequence of the action of some acid, formed by the decomposition of the organic parts. 3. That the action of frost operates separately upon each individual elementary organ, so that a frozen...
Page 153 - Schultz supposes, this is the vital fluid of plants, such a fact would alone account for the fatal effects of a low temperature. In all the cases I have observed frost coagulates this fluid, collecting it into amorphous masses.
Page 125 - Euphorbia, the apex of the nucleus is protruded far beyond the foramen, so as to lie within a kind of hood-like expansion of the placenta.
Page 154 - It is well known, that the same plant growing in a dry climate, or in a dry soil, or in a situation thoroughly drained from water during winter, will resist much more cold, than if cultivated in a damp climate, or in wet soil, or in a place affected by water in winter. Whatever tends to render tissue moist will increase its power of conducting heat, and consequently augment the susceptibility of plants to the influence of frost; and whatever tends to diminish their humidity, will also diminish their...
Page 153 - ... while, on the other hand, when the thaw is gradual, the air may retreat by degrees from its new situation without producing additional derangement of the tissue. It is also possible that leaves, from which their natural air has been expelled by the act of freezing, may, from that circumstance, have their tissue too little protected from the evaporating force of the solar rays, which we know produce a specific stimulus of a powerful kind upon those organs.
Page 56 - It does not, however, appear that this inquiry has led to any thing beyond the establishment of the fact, that, beginning from the cotyledons, the whole of the appendages of the axis of plants — leaves, calyx, corolla, stamens, and carpels — form an uninterrupted spire, governed by laws which are nearly constant.
Page 152 - ... liquid only, contains water and air, while that which is naturally a vehicle for air Conveys water. Such an inversion of functions must necessarily be destructive to vegetable life ; even if death were not produced in frozen plants by the decomposition of their juices, the loss of their excitability, and the chemical disturbance of all their contents.