Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Arab World
Islamic theocracy is now firmly established in fundamentalist Iran, and waves of fundamentalism are sweeping the entire Islamic world, and its diaspora.
This book examines the claim of those Islamists who contend that, as a belief system and a way of life, Islam carries with it a theory of politics and the state which should be applied unquestioningly. Ayubi traces both the intellectual sources and the socio-economic bases of Political Islam, arguing that it is a modern phenomenon, dating back only to the inter-war period. He describes its major proponents as urban, educated and relatively young people, whose energies were mobilised, but whose expectations were not fulfilled by the post-independence `populist' regimes in the Arab World.
Islamic movements in six countries are studied in detail. Ayubi's distinctively broad definition of politics encompasses innovative material on sex and the family, and on the emerging alternative economic and social networks of Islamic banks, schools, and hospitals in the countries discussed.
Ayubi stresses the traditional concern in Islam for the collective enforcement of morals, but argues that there is no case for the commonly held misconception that politics begins from theological principles in the Arab world: the historical connection between Islam and politics can be explained as an attempt by the rulers to legitimise their actions. He suggests that radical Islamists are reversing this position by subjecting politics to their specific religious views, so their movement is in some senses an anti-state one. He concludes by discussing possible intellectual responses to fundamentalism, drawing on the thinking of contemporary Muslim liberals.
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1 The theory and practice of the Islamic State
2 The politics of sex and the family or the collectivity of Islamic morality
intellectual expressions and political roles
some country studiespart 1
some country studiespart 2
8 Islamic banks companies and services or the rise of a native commercial bourgeoisie
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Abbasid al-‘arabi al-Banna al-islam al-islamiyya Arab world argued Asyut Beirut believed bourgeoisie Cairo caliphate Christian companies concept confrontation contemporary cultural discourse economic Egypt Egyptian emerged emphasised established fiqh fundamentalists Hanafi Hasan historical ibid Ibn Taimiya ideas ideological ijtihad Ikhwan imam infitah influence intellectual Iran Iranian Iranian revolution Islamic banks Islamic government Islamic liberals Islamic militants Islamic movements Islamic revival Islamic society Islamists jahiliyya Jihad juridic jurisprudence jurists Kharijites Khawarij Khomeini’s leaders leadership legitimacy legitimise mainly Mawdudi Middle East mode of production modern modernisation moral mosques Muhammad Muslim Brothers Muslim societies Nasser Nasserist neo-fundamentalists non-Muslims Numairi organisation Party political Islam Prophet Quran radical regard regime religion religious represent revolution rule rulers Sa’id Sadat salafi Saudi Arabia Sayyid Qutb secular secularist Shaikh shari’a Shi’i social socio-economic sources specifically Sudan Sunni Syria Takfir theory traditional trend ulama umma urban writings