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abutment accuracy airfield alinement approach zone batter boards bench marks bridge Calculate centerline central angle chord circular arcs circular curve compound curve computed construction plans construction survey contour interval contour lines cross section cross-section cut or fill deflection angles degree of curvature determined distance drainage earthwork elevation engineer equal established excavation exsec feet field notes Figure foot formula forward tangent frog grade stakes ground highways horizontal inch instrument intersection layout length line of sight lines and grades location survey measured obtained offset operations osculating circle parabola paragraph PC and PT percent planimeter plotted preliminary survey procedure rail railroad reading reconnaissance referenced reverse curve road route survey runway scale selected sewer slope stake spiral square stations stripper structures subchord superelevation surveyor tape terrain tion topographic traverse triangle turnout vernier vertical curve widening width