What matters in college?: four critical years revisited
What is the impact of college attendance on students' personal, social, academic, and vocational development? Do different types of colleges produce different outcomes? How important is the curriculum as opposed to the student peer group and the faculty? How are students affected by the quality and quantity of their personal involvement in the academic and extracurricular life of the institution?
In 1977, Alexander Astin attempted to answer these and other key questions in Four Critical Years, a book the Journal of Higher Education has since called the most frequently cited work in the higher education literature. In What Matters in College? Astin presents a completely new and expanded study of how students change and develop in college - and reveals how colleges can enhance that development. Based on a study of more than 20,000 students, 25,000 faculty members, and 200 institutions, the book shows how academic programs, faculty, student peer groups, and other variables affect students' college experiences. He examines more than 190 environmental characteristics of institutions and details how these factors can shape students' personality and self-concept, patterns of behavior, values and beliefs, academic and cognitive development, career development, and satisfaction with the college environment.
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Studying College Impact v
Environmental Variables J
A Prototypical Example
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ability academic Astin attend college bachelor's degree behavior Beta Beta coefficient career choice Chapter cognitive college experience conservatism courses taken Cultural Awareness curriculum dents direct positive effects Diversity Orientation effects on satisfaction effects on student enrollment environment Environmental Effects environmental variables exams factor Feminism fraternity or sorority freshman graduate Hedonism hours per week increase institutions Intellectual Self-Esteem interdisciplinary courses Involvement measures involvement variables Korn Leadership liberal Libertarianism LSAT math MCAT negative effects negatively associated outcome measures overall pattern of effects peer group percent percentage of students personal computer political identification posi positively associated pretest public university racial or ethnic regression Research Orientation Resources and Reputation satisfaction with faculty scores self-rating self-reported growth significant Social Activism social fraternity strongest student office Student Orientation student outcomes student-faculty interaction Student-Oriented Faculty teaching assistants tion tutoring other students undergraduate week spent women women's studies