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1st person 2nd person 3rd person neuter acai aciriya-t-talai aciriyam action/state added adjectival noun adjectival participle adjective adjp adverbial participle alliteration anku avan avar ayin ayinum ciru classical Tamil classical Tamil poems classical Tamil poetry consonant context derived elongated eluttu etukai extra-short following foot following item following the stem glide imperative/optative infinitive kali kalippa katu locative spatial long vowel malai meter metrical feet modern Tamil negative ner-ner ner-nirai nerpu neuter singular nirai nirai-ner nirai-nirai niraipu non-oblique stem non-past stem non-past/non-completive stem Note oblique stem occurs onru paripatal participial noun particle past stem past/completive marker past/completive stem patu person singular personal verb peyar plural plural/honorific porul postposition short vowel stem ending stem-final vowel Structure and Example suffix syllable taravu Tolkappiyam true alapetai ukaram Vaiyai vanci vannam vantu vencir venpa verb stem verbal noun word
Page 56 - Intransitive themes become transitive by the hardening and doubling of the consonant of the appended formative — eg, peru-gu, to abound, by this process becomes peru-kku, to increase (actively), to cause to abound. Transitives of this kind, which are formed from intransitives in actual use, are often called causals, and they are as well entitled to be called by that name as many causal verbs in the Indo-European tongues ; but as there is a class of Dravidian verbs which are...
Page 534 - The Dravidian verb is entirely destitute of a passive voice, properly so called, nor is there any reason to suppose that it ever had a passive. None of the Dravidian dialects possesses any passive particle or suffix, or any means of expressing passivity by direct inflexional changes ; the signification of the passive voice is, nevertheless, capable of being expressed in a variety of ways.
Page 534 - I have been accustomed to eat well. The Dravidian languages, indeed, are destitute of passives properly so called, and, therefore, resist every effort to bring pad-u into general use. Such efforts are constantly being made by foreigners, who are accustomed to passives in their own tongues, and fancy that they cannot get on without them ; but nothing sounds more barbarous to the Dravidian ear than the unnecessary use of padu as a passive auxiliary.
Page 534 - ... therefore, resist every effort to bring pad-u into general use. Such efforts are constantly being made by foreigners, who are accustomed to passives in their own tongues, and fancy that they cannot get on without them ; but nothing sounds more barbarous to the Dravidian ear than the unnecessary use of padu as a passive auxiliary. It is only when combined with nouns that its use is thoroughly allowable.
Page 41 - There are twelve vowels, viz. a, a, a:, i, i:, u, u:, e, e:, ai, o, o: and au...