This is the second edition of my book Galaxy Formation. Many people liked the rst edition which appeared in 1998, just before the explosion of magni cent new data which have completely changed the face of astrophysical cosmology. Many of the agonies which had to be gone through in the rst edition have disappeared and, to many people’s amazement, including mine, there is now a concordance model for cosmology, the cosmologist’s equivalent of the particle physicist’s standard model. Just like the standard model, however, the concordance model creates as many problems as it solves. This is not a cause for concern, but rather one for celebration because we are now able to ask much better and deeper questions than in the past. These questions indicate clearly the need for physics and astrophysics ‘Beyond the Concordance Model’. Theobjectofthisneweditionistobringthisamazingstoryup-to-date,verymuch inthespiritofthe rstedition.Torecapitulatesomeofthepointsmadeintheprevious prefaceabouttheoriginofthebook,IwasaskedbySpringer-Verlagtoexpandtheset of lecture notes that I prepared in 1988 for the First Astrophysics School organised by the European Astrophysics Doctoral Network into a full-length book. The set of notes was entitled Galaxy Formation and was published as a chapter of the volume Evolution of Galaxies: Astronomical Observations (eds. I. Appenzeller, H.J. Habing andP.Lena,pages1to93,Springer-VerlagBerlin,Heidelberg,1989).Inthatchapter, Iattemptedtobridgethegapbetweenelementarycosmologyandthetechnicalpapers appearing in the literature which can seem quite daunting on rst encounter. The objective was to present the physical ideas and key results as clearly as possible as an introduction and guide to the technical literature.
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The LargeScale Structure of the Universe 27
Clusters of Galaxies
An Introduction to Relativistic Gravity
The Friedman World Models
Correlation Functions and the Spectrum of the Initial Fluctuations
Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
The PostRecombination Era
The Evolution of Galaxies and Active Galaxies with Cosmic Epoch 491
The Intergalactic Medium
Making Real Galaxies
The Very Early Universe
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Abell abundance amplitude astrophysical clusters of galaxies cold dark matter colleagues comoving radial distance correlation function corresponding Cosmic Microwave Background cosmological constant curvature density parameter density perturbations derived diagram distribution of galaxies dynamics early Universe Einstein electrons elliptical galaxies energy density epoch of recombination equation estimate evolution expanding fluctuations geometry gravitational lensing gravitational potential Hubble Hubble’s constant images ionised isotropic large redshifts large-scale luminosity function magnitude mass density metric Microwave Background Radiation neutrinos neutron nucleosynthesis number density observed optical particle horizon particles photons physical power spectrum present epoch primordial quasar radial distance coordinate radiation-dominated radio radius ratio regions relation relativistic Relativity result rich clusters rotation sample scale factor shown in Fig space space–time spherical spiral galaxies standard stars stellar structure supernovae temperature tensor theory velocity dispersion waveband world models X-ray Zeldovich ΩΛ