Energy Transformations During Horizontal Walking

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Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1915 - Metabolism - 100 pages
 

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Page 100 - Any type of locomotion, therefore, which minimizes the raising of the body is the most economical. As a natural outcome of the study it will be seen that it would be desirable for athletes and others interested in the work of forward progression to develop a gait which will eliminate these two apparently unnecessary and extraneous factors, each of which requires the expenditure of a considerable amount of energy which is not directly contributory to the motion of forward progression.
Page 36 - ... study was made to elaborate the earlier researches on horizontal walking. A modified form of the universal respiration apparatus was employed and a specially designed treadmill. The factors measured were the oxygen consumption, the carbon-dioxide production, the respiration-rate, the distance walked, the number of steps taken by the subject, and the height to which the body of the subject was raised in the up and down motion of walking. The values for the resting metaboTABLE I TABLE II lism as...
Page 61 - As has already been noted, the mechanical processes incidental to walking, even at a moderate pace, usually involve some extraneous muscular movements apparently not directly connected with the motion of forward progression, such as the more or less vigorous swinging of the arms and a not inconsiderable raising of the body-weight with each step. Since these extraneous muscular movements do not necessarily have an effective value in transporting the...
Page 42 - ... the metabolism during walking, preliminary experiments were made with the subject (1) standing with body relaxed without external support; (2) leaning against a support at the back; (3) leaning on a staff; and (4) standing with muscles tense in the position of "attention." A few experiments were also made with the subject standing and swinging the arms from side to side as in a fast walk, and with the subject sitting and lying. In the walking experiments the subject walked at a very slow speed,...
Page 6 - When a person is walking, not only is energy required for the external muscular exercise, but a heat production is necessary for the entire maintenance of the body activities, including muscular tonus, the work of circulation, respiratory muscles, and the external work of balancing the body in an upright position, none of these activities contributing directly to the work required to move the body in a horizontal direction.
Page 100 - Murschhauser to conclude that "Any type of locomotion, therefore, which minimizes the raising of the body is the most economical. As a natural outcome of this study it will be seen that it would be desirable for athletes and others interested in the work of forward progression to develop a gait which will eliminate these two apparently unnecessary and extraneous factors, each of which requires the expenditure of a considerable amount of energy which...
Page 42 - ... of the body was recorded upon a rotating kymograph drum. To establish a base-line for comparison with the metabolism during walking. preliminary experiments were made with the subject (1) standing with body relaxed without external support; (2) leaning against a support at the back; (3) leaning on a staff; and (4) standing with muscles tense in the position of "attention." A few experiments were also made with the subject standing and swinging the arms from side to side as in a fast walk, and...
Page 14 - Denkschrift. d. math.-natur. Klasse d. kaiserl. Akad. d. Wissensch., 1909, 86, p. 250.

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