Fears, Phobias and Rituals: Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disorders
This book draws on fields as diverse as biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and ethology, to form a fascinating synthesis of information on the nature of fear and of panic and anxiety disorders. Dr. Marks offers both a detailed discussion of the clinical aspects of fear-related syndromes and a broad exploration of the sources and mechanisms of fear and defensive behavior. Dealing first with normal fear, he establishes a firm, scientific basis for understanding it. He then presents a thorough analysis of the development, symptoms and treatment of fear-related syndromes. Phobic and obsessive-compulsive disorders are examined in detail. The book is illustrated with examples of fear and defensive behavior in other living organisms. By drawing provocative analogies between animal and human behavior, it sheds new light on the origins of fears, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive problems, as well as on their treatment by drugs and psychological means. Clinical psychologists, ethologists, and anyone interested in the mechanisms of behavior will be fascinated by this authoritative study. The text is intriguing and informative, and the bibliography of over 2,100 entries makes it an invaluable reference.
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abreaction activity adult agoraphobia agoraphobics alarm calls animals antidepressants anxiety disorder anxiolytic anxious attack aversion avoidance birds blood blood-injury Chapter clinical clomipramine cognitive conditioning conspecifics controls cortisol cues defensive dental depressed mood depression diazepam distress dogs drug effect Emmelkamp emotional escape evoked experience exposure therapy extinction fantasy exposure female follow-up frequent frightened genetic groups habituation heart rate human hyenas imipramine improved increased infants initial learning less live exposure male Marks monkeys months mood mother neurons normal obsessions obsessive-compulsive obsessive-compulsive disorder oc symptoms occur onset outcome panic disorder patients phobic and oc placebo predators present prey probands problem propanolol psychiatric rats reactions receptors reduced Reprinted by permission response prevention rhesus rituals self-exposure sensitization sessions shock similar situations skin conductance snakes social phobics species specific phobias spontaneous panics stimuli strangers stress studies syndrome therapist threat tion tonic immobility treatment usually weeks wildebeest
Page 3 - Men, during numberless generations, have endeavored to escape from their enemies or danger by headlong flight, or by violently struggling with them; and such great exertions will have caused the heart to beat rapidly, the breathing to be hurried, the chest to heave, and the nostrils to be dilated. As these exertions have often been prolonged to the last extremity, the final result will have been utter prostration, pallor, perspiration, trembling of all the muscles, or their complete relaxation. And...
Page 3 - ... movements, to make them appear terrible to their enemies; and as the same involuntary and voluntary actions are performed by animals nearly related to man, we are led to believe that man has retained through inheritance a relic of them, now become useless.